NCERT Solutions Economics Class 10 Chapter 2 Question Answer Sectors of the Indian Economy Notes

Are you a student of class 10th and you are looking for NCERT Solutions Economics class 10 chapter 2 question answer Notes? Because this chapter is very important for the exam. Many questions from this chapter have come in the exam. Because of this, it is very important to know the question and answers of this chapter.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

NCERT Solutions Economics Class 10 Chapter 2 Question Answer Sectors of the Indian Economy Notes

class | Classes10th
CHAPTER | Chapter02
Chapter Name | Chapter NameSectors of the Indian Economy
board | boardCBSE
book | Books NCERT | NCERT
subject | SubjectECONOMICS
Medium | Moderate ENGLISH
Study Material | Study MaterialsVVI Question answer


Economics class 10 chapter 2 question answer


Economics Class 10 Chapter 2 Question Answer
Class 10 SST Economics

Very short answer type questions


1. What is the primary sector?

1 Answer – Such activities where the things provided by nature are put to use, we call them the activities of the primary sector.

2. Give some examples of activities related to the primary sector.

Answer – Mining, lumbering, and fishing are some of the primary sector activities.

3 What is meant by the secondary sector?

Answer – Activities that convert raw materials or primary products into useful goods they are called secondary sector activities.

4. Give some examples of activities related to the secondary sector.

Answer – Sugar, paper making, textile manufacturing, etc. are some of the secondary sectors. There are examples.

5 What is called the tertiary sector?

Answer – Tertiary sector is not concerned with the production of goods but with services that come from construction.

6. Give some examples of the tertiary sector.

Answer- Advocacy, medical, banking, transport, communication, etc. are some examples of tertiary sector activities.

7 What is meant by Gross Domestic Product?

Answer – The sum total of the products of all three sectors (primary, secondary, and tertiary)is called the Gross Domestic Product.

8 Why is there under-employment in the agriculture sector?

Answer- Because more people are still engaged in the agriculture sector than necessary. Hence there exists under-employment among the workers.

9 What is disguised unemployment?

Answer- When people work more than necessary to do a particular work, then their whole bread does not work, in such a situation the unemployment they suffer is called under-employment or disguised unemployment.

10 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (Why is NREG called Right to Work?

Answer- The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 has been called the right to work because the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 ensures 100 days of employment to every rural household every year. If an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days. So he will be entitled to a daily employment allowance. One-third of the proposed employment under this law shall be reserved for women.

11 What is an organized sector?

Answer – Organized sector is the one where the conditions of the job are fixed, The hours are fixed. Provident Fund and other allowances are also available, and Sunday. There is also a holiday.

12 What is an unorganized sector?

Answer – The unorganized sector is the one where the conditions of the job are not regular. Provident funds and other allowances are not available and where there is no arrangement for pension etc.

13 What is the public sector?

Answer- The sectors in which most of the assets are controlled by the government are called the public sector.

14 What is the private sector?

Answer- Those sectors whose assets and services are in the hands of a particular person or company, such sectors are called the private sector.

15. Give examples of the private sector.

Answer – Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited and Reliance Industries Limited etc. are some examples of the private sector.

16 What is unemployment?

Answer – In simple language such persons who are not engaged in any productive activity. are called unemployed. Such a situation is called unemployment.

17 What is meant by seasonal unemployment?

Answer- Farmers or people who become unemployed after working for a certain period of time are called seasonal unemployment. This unemployment is mostly in the agricultural sector.is found in

18 Which is the most widespread form of unemployment?

Answer – The most widespread form of unemployment is disguised unemployment. Because the person appears to be working but in reality he is unemployed. This type of unemployment is seen more in rural areas.

19. How does population growth give rise to unemployment?

Ans- Population increases at a higher rate than employment opportunities. In this way, a high rate of increase in population causes unemployment. Therefore, population control is necessary to remove unemployment.

20 How can local banks help farmers?

Answer-

(a) They can help them by giving them loans at cheap rates.

(b) They can save them from the entanglements of bureaucracy.


Short answer type questions


1 Sector of the Indian Economy Do you think there is utility in dividing economic activities into primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors? Explain how?

The utility of dividing post-economic activities into primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors is due to the following two reasons-

image credit: social media

(a) Analysis of employment pattern- On the basis of the division of economic activities, it can be analyzed in which sector more people work. are doing, in which sector the unemployment is high, and in which part of the economy what is the extent of indirect unemployment in the area. On the basis of this analysis, the government decides the employment policy.

(b) Calculation of GDP- On the basis of the division of economic activities, GDP i.e. Gross Domestic Product can be easily calculated. From this, it is known in which sector the gross domestic product is the contribution of

2 Why should each sector in the chapter “Sectors of the Indian Economy” be focused on employment and gross domestic product (GDP) only? Discuss.

Answer- In the chapter “Sectors of the Indian Economy”, we have learned that the economic activities of man are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. It is related to activities such as farming, fishing, digging mines, etc.

The secondary sector is related to those activities which use the primary things and convert them into useful things by the industries. For example, making sugar, making paper, making cloth, etc. The tertiary sector is not concerned with the production of goods but with the creation of services. Like- Advocacy, Doctors, Banks, Providing education in schools, etc.

When we have come to know the definition of various sectors, then we should also be evaluated what has been their contribution to the field of gross domestic product and employment. The contribution of all three sectors increased over time (from 1973 to 2003). But the maximum contribution to the GDP was of the tertiary sector, but it increased in the employment sector, but still, 60% of India’s population is engaged in the primary sector.

3 How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? illustrationDo it.

Answer – The activities that take place in the tertiary sector help in the primary and secondary sectors. These activities are not productive in themselves. But productive activities can be helpful. For example, the production done by the primary and secondary sectors is transported to other places by trucks or trains.

Sometimes the goods are also kept in godowns. Goods are paid for by talking to other traders over the telephone, through letters, or by borrowing money from banks. All these actions are examples of tertiary actions. This means that the tertiary sector performs service functions and not production functions. That is why it is also known as the ‘Service Sector’.

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4. What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with examples of urban and rural areas.

Answer – Disguised unemployment or covert unemployment – ​​farmer production in IndiaThey use the old way only because they are poor, they are not even the owner of the land. If modern methods of farming are adopted, then such a situation cannot arise when instead of three members of the family, only two members can work on a piece of land, but due to its absence, all three members have to work on the same farm. Does matter. The unemployment thus generated is called disguised or secret unemployment.

Disguised unemployment is usually found in rural areas because there the families have small farms but all the family members work on them. Where two people can complete the work of farming, there are five members engaged, but if there is not enough work for all, then if two or three members of such a family do some other work, like working in a factory, then The work will not matter. Very

Similarly, disguised unemployment is also found in urban areas. There also, laborers, painters, plumbers, etc. jobs get work only for 10 to 15 days in a month, the rest of the days they remain idle. We also call this unemployment disguised as unemployment.

5. How are economic activities classified on the basis of conditions of employment? are done?

Answer- On the basis of employment conditions, economic activities are classified into two parts-

(a) Organized Sector- Those enterprises or workplaces where the duration of employment is regular and people have assured work come under the organized sector. Organized sector enterprises are registered by the government and have to comply with government rules and regulations.

(b) Unorganized Sector- Such enterprises or workplaces where the period of employment is irregular and people do not have assured work, come under the unorganized sector. Such enterprises are not registered by the government. There are rules and regulations in this sector, but they are not followed.

6 “Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.

Ans- Workers in the unorganized sector whether they are from rural areas (eg- landless agricultural laborers, small and marginal farmers, harvesters, weavers, carpenters, blacksmiths

etc.) or from urban areas (such as workers in small-scale industries, casual workers engaged in construction, trade and transport, street hawkers, workers carrying heavy loads, etc.) all are subjected to economic and social exploitation.

Especially the workers who belong to Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes, and Backward Classes, most of them belong to the unorganized sector. They not only have to become victims of economic exploitation, but they also have to face social injustice.

Sometimes they are not allowed to draw water from wells, sometimes they are not allowed to go to particular temples. We have to protect them from all kinds of economic and social exploitation for the development of their full personality. Only then they will be able to serve the country by becoming true citizens of the nation.

7. Compare the employment conditions of organized and unorganized sectors.

Answer- Comparison of employment conditions of organized and unorganized sectors-

(a) While in the organized sector, special rules are followed due to which the interests of the workers are protected but in the unorganized sector no such special laws are followed.

(b) Fair wages to the workers in the organized sector and that too on time is available but it rarely happens in the unorganized sector.

(c) Workers in the organized sector usually have fixed jobs and the unorganizedNot in the field.

(d) Workers in the organized sector get provident funds, medical and other allowances, and holidays with salary in addition to the salary under the government rules, whereas in the unorganized sector, nothing like this happens.

(e) Pension etc. is received after retirement in the organized sector whereas nothing like this happens in the unorganized sector.

8. Explain the objectives of NREGA 2005 (NREGA 2005).

Answer- The following are the main objectives of the National Rural Development Program-2005 (NREGA-2005)-

(a) Under this Act, 100 days of employment in a year has been guaranteed by the government to all those people who are able to work and who are in need of work.

(b) One-third of the proposed jobs shall be reserved for women.

(c) If the government is not able to provide employment to an applicant within 15 days, then that person will be entitled to a daily employment allowance.

(d) such works as would be given priority under this Act, Which will help in increasing the production from the land in the future.

9. Compare the activities and functions of the public and private sectors by giving examples from your area.

Answer- On the basis of ownership, industries are well divided into the following categories be done-

(a) Public Sector Industries – Those industries, which are owned by the State Government or an organization of the Central Government, are called Public Sector Industries. Examples of such industries are the iron and steel industries in Indian Railways, Bhilai, Durgapur, etc., the shipbuilding industry, etc. Such industries are run by the state under its control and government laws apply here.

(b) Private sector industries – Those industries which are owned by some individuals or firms or companies are called private sector industries. Examples of private sector industries are the iron and steel industry located in Jamshedpur. Such industries in Delhi are Pure Drinks, which manufactures Campa Cola etc., and Britannia Industries, which manufactures double roti and biscuits, etc.

10. Give examples of public sector activities and explain why these activities are implemented by the government. Or, explain how the public sector contributes to the economic development of a country.

Answer- It is mandatory to have a public sector, its main reasons are as follows-

(a) The public sector provides many essential commodities at reasonable pricesGets which the private sector can never do.

(b) The public sector can build heavy industries as they require a lot of money. This is often impossible to do in the private sector.

(c) The main objective of the public sector is to serve the people as profit-making is not its objective, while the main objective of the private sector is nothing other than its profit.

(d) The government mostly controls the public sector, so for the welfare of the general public, it produces many things for the welfare of the people by spending many times on its own, many times wheat, rice, etc. It is also made available by the sector at cheap prices. Railways, post offices, big hospitals, factories, etc. are some of the main public activities of the public sector carried out by the government, which benefit the common man a lot. Almost all public sector activities contribute significantly to the economic development of the country, so their existence is essential.

11 Unorganized sector workers need protection on the following issues- Wages, Safety and Health Explain with examples.

Answer- The following are the reasons for giving protection to the workers working in the unorganized sector-

(a) The workers working in the unorganized sector do not get any fixed work and have to remain idle for many days. That’s why they need protection.

(b) The wages of those working in the unorganized sector are usually low and that too is not fixed, so they should be protected.

(c) Workers working in the unorganized sector do not even get any fixed holidays, so they remain bogged down with work. (d) They don’t get any pension etc. after retirement, so they need protection.

(e) The jobs of those working in the unorganized sector are also not confirmed and they are removed whenever they want. That’s why protection is very important for them.

(f) Owners of firms and factories, especially in the unorganized sector, many do not even follow the government rules, so there is no need to bind them to the rules. It is necessary to provide protection to the workers.

12 Why has the tertiary sector become so important in India?

Answer – Due to the importance of the tertiary sector in India-

(a) Many services are needed in any country, such as hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, rural administrative offices, municipal corporations, defense, transport, bank, insurance company, etc. These are considered basic services. goes. In a developing country, the government takes up the responsibility of managing these services.

(b) Secondly, the development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services like transport, trade, and storage. The greater the development of the primary and secondary sectors, the greater the demand for such services.

(c) Third, as income increases, some people start demanding many other services like restaurants, tourism, shopping, private hospitals, private schools, vocational training, etc. One can see this rapid change in the cities, especially in the big cities.

(d) Fourthly, some innovative services based on information and communication technology have become important and indispensable in the last decades. The production of these services is increasing rapidly.

13. Distinguish between ‘disguised unemployment’ and ‘seasonal unemployment’.

Answer- Difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment-

(a) In disguised unemployment a person appears to be working but is actually unemployed.(a) In seasonal unemployment, the farmer or person becomes unemployed after working for a fixed period.
(b) A situation in which a greater number of people are unemployed than what is shown by the unemployment statistics.(b) Unemployment that increases according to the change of season, which is mostly found in the agricultural sector.

14. Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.

Answer- Differentiation between open unemployment and disguised unemployment can be done on the basis of the following facts-

open unemploymentdisguised unemployment
(a) People are totally unemployed under this type of unemployment. (a) Under this people appear to be employed but in reality they are unemployed.
(b) Work is not available to a single person under it.(b) Under this, more number of people are engaged in any work than necessary.
(c) This type of unemployment is found in industrial areas(c) Disguised unemployment is found in the agriculture sector.
(d) This type of unemployed people can be clearly enumerated. (d) This type of people cannot be counted clearly.

15 Explain the primary field, secondary field, and tertiary field.

(a) Primary Sector Various activities related to collecting the things provided by nature for use are called the activities of the primary sector. Mining, lumbering, and fishing are some of the primary activities.

(b) Secondary Sector The activities which convert raw materials or primary products into goods useful to human beings are called secondary activities. For example, the sugar industry, paper industry, etc. depend on primary activities.

(c) Tertiary Sector – Those activities whose various activities are essential for running modern industries successfully are called tertiary sector activities. Examples of tertiary sector industries are- transport, communication, banks, education, etc. In the tertiary sector, Services are manufactured, not goods

Is. The mainstay of national income is the tertiary sector, whether the mainstay of employment is still agriculture or the primary sector.

16 How can employment be increased in urban areas?

Answer – Increase in employment in urban areas can be done in the following ways-

(a) Labour-intensive techniques of production should be adopted.

(b) Small and cottage industries should be encouraged.

(c) solving problems related to power supply, raw materials, and transport should be done so that those industries which are producing less than their capacity, can utilize their full capacity.

(d) Our education system should be made employment oriented. Special attention should be paid to vocational education.

(e) The government should encourage self-employment by providing facilities like credit, training, and marketing.

(f) employment, especially in the service sector such as tourism, information, and technology

There are vast possibilities, there is a need for proper planning and government assistance in these areas.

(g) Implementing targeted employment generation programs with full dedication and sincerity should be done.


Long answer type questions


1 “There are two different types of people employed in the service sector in India. Do you agree with this statement? Who are these different types of people? Or, Justify. Is the service sector really growing? Mark your answer.

Answer – Growth in the service sector – Initially, the primary sector was the most important in all countries. Most of the people of the society were employed in this, such as farmers, animal herders, fishermen, honey gatherers, woodcutters, etc. But with time people started making various schemes through small industries. Thus production started in the secondary sector. Then many workshops and factories started to be established.

By using cotton, the man started weaving cloth, due to which he started earning many times more than before. From the primary products, whether it was wheat, rice, sugarcane, or even a piece of wood, different types of goods started being manufactured.

Then gradually in the tertiary sector, many services such as teaching, transport, communication, banking, medicine, advocacy, etc. started being created in place of goods. At present, some innovative services related to information technology such as internet cafes, ATM booths, call centers, and software centers have emerged. These services have left the first two sectors – primary and secondary sectors far behind in terms of income.

Generally, two types of people have started working in the services. One type of people is those who are engaged in services related to primary and secondary sectors, such as transport, communication, trade, banking, storage, etc. There are some people in service sectors who are directly related to primary and secondary sector activities. are not related.

They do not help in production. People who provide personal services like teachers, doctors, washermen, barber, cobblers and lawyers, etc., or administrative workers are engaged, people.

2 The tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of the Indian economy.” Do you agree with it? Give reasons in support of your answer.

Answer- No, I do not agree with the statement that the tertiary sector is not playing any important role in the development of the Indian economy.

In fact, in terms of GDP, the tertiary sector has become the most productive sector in India instead of the primary sector. In 1973, the share of tertiary sector in GDP was about 35%, which increased to more than 50% in 2003.

Although in the 30 years between 1973 and 2003, there has been an increase in the production of all three sectors. But this growth has been highest in the tertiary sector. Is. In terms of employment, during the same period, the rate of growth in tertiary sector employment has been around 300 percent while in the secondary sector, this growth rate has been 250 percent. In the primary sector, this growth was very less.

3. How would you differentiate between organized and unorganized sectors?

Answer – Organized Sector –

(a) Under the organized sector, those enterprises or business units are included which are registered by the government, they are governed by the government regulations under the Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Payments Act, etc. And regulations have to be followed.

(b) There are some formal procedures under it. (c) The terms of employment are regular. People’s work is ensured.

(d) People work only for fixed hours. If they work more hours, they are paid extra for it by the employer.

(e) People get monthly salaries regularly.

(f) Apart from salary, people also get many other benefits like-Payment, Provident Fund, Gratuity, Pension, etc.

Unorganized Sector-

(a) Under this sector come those small and scattered units which are generally outside the government’s control. Although rules and regulations have been made for these also. But they are not followed. (b) There is no formal process here.

(c) Here the wages in employment are low and often irregular. People can be asked to leave work at any time without reason.

(d) Here the working hours are not fixed. plus extra hours there is no system for payment.

(e) People get daily wages.

(d) There is no provision for any benefit other than daily wages.

4. Explain the ways by which more and more employment can be created in a country like India.

Answer- Maximum employment can be created in India in the following ways

(a) Government or public sector banks can provide loans to small farmers at cheap rates. With this money, they can get good seeds, and good tools, and arrange wells. frequenters of wells with water, they will not have to depend on rain and secondly due to the good arrangement of water-irrigation, instead of one will be able to grow two-three crops.

(b) Many river valley projects should be constructed and water can be transported to remote areas through canals and more employment facilities can be made available.

(c) By providing better facilities for transport and storage, the farmers would be able to get fair prices for their produce and help in reducing unemployment. Will get help.

(d) Opening many new industries in rural areas will also help a lot in solving the problem of unemployment.

(e) Promotion of honey gathering, fish farming, and milk industry in rural areas the problem of unemployment can also be overcome by giving. Due to the development process in India, the share of the tertiary sector in GDP has increased.

5. Do you agree with this statement? Explain in detail.

Answer – By GDP, we mean the sum total of the products of all three sectors, it is also called gross domestic product. Similarly, those activities by which services are provided rather than the manufacture of goods.

is formed, it is called the tertiary sector. There is no doubt that the share of the tertiary sector in GDP has increased due to the development process in India. In the thirty years from 1973 to 2003, the primary sector’s share in GDP growth was 25%, similarly, the share of the secondary sector was also about 25% during this period.

The share of the tertiary sector during this period was some 50%. But the share of the tertiary sector in the field of employment is not that much.

Could be The share of the primary sector in the employment sector in 2000 was 60%.18% of the secondary sector and 22% of the tertiary sector. Thus

In 2000, the primary sector had the largest share in the employment sector. About 66% of the people were still employed here. In this way, we can say that the share of the tertiary sector in GDP has increased but it has not increased so much in the field of employment.

Efforts are also going on and there is a possibility of increasing the participation of tertiary sector in the field of employment as well.


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FAQs


Q. How can tourism help in reducing unemployment?

Answer- According to the study of the Planning Commission, if there is improvement in the tourism sector, then more than 35 lakh people can get additional employment.

Q. Which people mainly come in the unorganized sector in rural areas?

Answer – Landless agricultural laborers, small and marginal farmers, harvesters, weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters, etc.

Q. Who are the vulnerable people involved in the unorganized sector in urban areas?

Answer – Workers in small-scale industries, casual workers engaged in construction, trade and transport, street hawkers, workers carrying heavy loads, etc.

Q. What is called agriculture and allied sector?

Answer- The sector in which goods are produced using natural resources is also called agriculture and allied sector.

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