NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

Are you a student of class 10th and you are looking for important question answers in Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries?

this chapter is very important for the exam. Many questions from this chapter have come in the exam. Because of this, it is very important to know the question and answers to this chapter.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

Chapter NameManufacturing Industries
Medium English
Study MaterialsQuestion Answer

very short answers type questions

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer
NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer

1. What is object-making or manufacturing?

Answer – The process of converting raw materials into valuable products and producing more of them is called commodity-making or manufacturing.

2. Mention three physical factors affecting the location of industries.

Answer- (a) Availability of raw materials, (b) Various means of power,(c) Favorable climate.

3. Any three human factors affecting the location of industries

Answer- (a) Availability of cheap labor,(b) Means of communication and transport, (c) Capital and bank facilities.

4. What are the main components of modern industries?

Answer – Raw material, capital, trained labor, energy, transport facilities, etc.

5 What are the major industries based on agriculture in India?

Answer – Textile industry, Sugar industry, Vegetable oil industry, Paper industry, Jute textile industry, etc.

6 What are light industries?

Answer- Light industry means that industry in which the cost is less and the workers also work in very less numbers and the raw material used in them is used in less quantity. For example- an electric fan, and a sewing machine.

7 Name the four important cotton textile industry centers of Maharashtra.

Answer – Four important cotton textile industry centers of Maharashtra – (a) Mumbai, (b) Sholapur (c) Pune, and (d) Nagpur.

8. Name the two most important sugar-producing states in India.

Answer- The two most important sugar-producing states of India-

(a) Uttar Pradesh and (b) Maharashtra.

9. Name four manufacturing centers of electronic goods in India.

Answer – Four manufacturing centers of electronic goods in India – (a) Bangalore, (b) Hyderabad, (c) Chennai, and (d) Delhi.

10 Name two iron and steel plants each in Karnataka and West Bengal.

Answer – Iron and Steel Plant of Karnataka-

  • (a) Bhadrawati Steel Plant,
  • (b) Vijayanagar Steel Plant. iron and steel plants of west bengal
  • (a) Durgapur Steel Plant,
  • (b) Indian Iron Steel Company, Varnpur, Hirapur, Kulti (Asansol.

11. Write the names of four important woolen textile industries of Uttar Pradesh.

Answer- Four important woolen textile industries of Uttar Pradesh-

(a) Kanpur (b) Shahjahanpur, (c) Agra and (d) Mirzapur.

12. The largest number of artisans in India are engaged in the cotton industry. Why? Write two reasons for this.

Ans- (a) Cotton industry is the oldest industry in India. This industry is very broad and spread across the area. It includes both urban and rural areas.

(b) Many artisans are required in the textile industry. Some people are engaged in separating cottonseed from cotton, some in spinning yarn, some in weaving yarn, some in dyeing and some in printing, etc.

13. How does industrial pollution degrade the environment? Explain with two examples.

Ans- (a) The dirty, acidic, and poisonous water coming out of the factories when continuously it continues to spread in the surrounding lands, it makes those lands completely useless. Such lands are not fit for agriculture.

(b) Garbage released from factories becomes a major cause of land and water pollution.

Short answer Type questions

1 What is the basic industry? Explain by giving example.

Answer- Based on the nature of the finished goods, industries can be divided into the following categories-

(a) Basic Industries – Those important industries on which many other industries are based are called basic industries or basic industries. For example, the iron and steel industry and the heavy machine manufacturing industry are industries of this class.

(b) Consumer Industries – Those industries which produce goods mainly for the consumption of the people are called consumer industries. Modern Bakery, The Delhi Milk Scheme, and the fountain pen industry are examples of consumer industries.

class 10th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

2. How do industries pollute the environment?

Ans- (a) Industries have given rise to four types of pollution-

(a) air pollution,

(b) water pollution,

(c) land pollution,

(d) noise pollution.

(b) The smoke coming out of industries pollutes both air and water. Due to the increase in the amount of carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide in the air, the amount of undesirable gases increases and the air becomes polluted.

(c) Dust, smoke, and mist are mixed in the air. This affects the atmosphere.

(d) Waste from industries is toxic and pollutes the land and soil. does.

(e) both noise and pollution from the lathe and saw machines in large quantitiesLet’s get out This pollutes the entire environment.

(f) When various elements of the environment become polluted, the whole environment gets damaged.

3 What is the importance of industries?

Answer- Importance of industries-

(a) Industries play an important role in the economy of a country and in the lives of the people.

(b) Industries manufacture goods used in the daily life of the people and industries fulfill the daily needs of the people.

(c) Earning foreign exchange by selling the goods manufactured by the industries in the country and abroad can go, which increases the national wealth.

What are the different bases of classification of industries? OR What are the four main bases of classification of industries? Explain the basis of each classification with suitable examples.

Answer- On the basis of the classification of industries-

(a) On the basis of the source of raw material, the industries are divided into two divided into

(i) Agro-based industries Cotton textile industry, jute, woolen cloth, silk cloth, rubber, sugar, paper, vegetable oil, etc.

Mineral-based industries – iron-steel, cement, machinery, petrochemicalsElectric industry, etc.

(b) on the basis of dominant roleBasic Industries Iron-steel, cement, heavy machinery, etc.

(ii) Consumer industries – sugar, paper, fan, sewing machine, etc.

(c) on the basis of capital investment-

(1) Small Scale Industries Pen, Biscuits, Copy, etc. (N) Large-scale industries – iron-steel industries etc.

(d)On the basis of ownership

(i) Public Sector-SAIL, H.E.C.

(ii) Private sector Reliance, Tata

(iii) Joint Industry.

(iv) Co-operative industry.

Explain the classification of industries on the basis of ownership.

Answer- Classification of industries on the basis of ownership-

(a) Industries managed and operated by government agencies engaged in the public sector like Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) and Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) etc.

(b) industries in the private sector owned and operated by an individual or owned and operated by individuals. TISCO Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries etc.

(c) Joint Industries – Those industries which are run in a joint effort of the State Government and the private sector. Like- Oil India Limited (OIL).

(d) Co-operative industries are owned by the producers supplying the raw materials, the workers, or both. fund of resources is joint and the sharing of profit and loss is also proportionate. E.g. sugar industry of Maharashtra and the coconut-based industry of Kerala Explains how agriculture and industry are growing together.

6. Agriculture and industry complement each other, how?OR How are the development of agriculture and industry related to each other?

Answer- It becomes clear from the following examples that agriculture and industry are companions of each other-

(a) Raw materials are provided by agriculture to various agro-based industries, such as the textile industry, sugar industry, rubber industry, etc.

(b) Various ancillary things, such as machines, agriculture, tools, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. are made available to agriculture by the industry. These increase the productivity of crops.

(c) Industry helps in the modernization of agriculture with various agricultural equipment like tractors, harvesters, thrashers, etc. With the help of these tools, maximum work can be done in minimum time.

(d) Raw materials obtained from agriculture are converted by industries into various high-value finished goods. For example, sugar from sugarcane, cottonManufacturing of clothes, etc. This brings prosperity to the country.

7 What are the agro-based industries in India? in the Indian economyWhat is their importance?

Answer- The industries which are based on agriculture are called agro-based industries. These agro-based industries have their special importance in the economy of India as follows-

(a) They manufacture many things used in daily life and meet people’s daily needs.

(b) Agriculture-based industries have their own special importance for an agricultural country.Is. The raw material is used in our country only and when it is ready, its value increases manifold. In this way, our income increases manifold.

8 What is meant by the chemical industry? State the importance of the chemical industry.

Answer- Meaning of chemical industry- The industry which makes many products from heavy chemicals like medicines, dyeing materials, insecticides, plastics, paints, etc. is called the chemical industry. Importance of chemical industry- Many chemical substances are produced in India such as medicines, insecticides, dyes, dyes, plastics) etc. Pesticides have their own special importance in the field of agriculture.

9 What are the reasons for the rapid development of the chemical industry in India?

Answer- The chemical industry is rapidly developing and expanding in India. This industry is the third largest in Asia and 12th in terms of size in the world. It includes both small and large-scale manufacturing units. Rapid growth has been registered in both inorganic and organic sectors.

(a) Sulfuric acid in inorganic chemicals (used in the manufacture of fertilizers, artificial textiles, plastics, glues, pigments, dyes, etc.), nitric acid, alkali, and soda ash. (Coach, soap, purifier or detergent, chemicals used in paper) and caustic soda etc. country of these industries has a wide spread.

(b) Organic chemicals include petrochemicals which are used in the manufacture of synthetic textiles, plastics, dyes, medicines, and pharmaceutical chemicals. These industries are close to oil refineries or petrochemical plants. are installed.

Write a short note on Fertilizer Industry. Or, What is the importance of the fertilizer industry? fertilizer industry of indiaExplain development.

Answer – To provide food for the growing population of India, there is a great need for fertilizers to increase production, to raise the standard of living of a people. The major centers of fertilizers till now are located at Sindri, Nangal, Nagpur, Durgapur, Haldia, Kochi, Chennai, Rourkela, etc. Because raw materials like coal, petrol, electricity, natural, etc are easily available near them.

11 Give an account of the development and distribution of the cement industry in India.

Answer – Cement is essential in the construction of construction works such as houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams, and other business establishments. This industry requires heavy and bulky raw materials such as limestone, silica, alumina, and gypsum. Apart from rail transport, coal, and electric energy are also necessary in this.

The units of this industry have been set up in Gujarat because from here it has market availability in Khadi countries. The first cement industry was set up in Chennai in 1904. After independence, this industry spread. With the deregulation of price and distribution and other policy reforms since 1989, the cement industry has made tremendous progress in capacity, process and technology, and production.

Various types of cement are produced in India. Due to the improvement in quality, demand has increased in the markets of East Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia, in addition to the large domestic demand in India. It is progressing both in terms of production and export.

12 Write a short note on Sugar Industry.

Answer – The sugar industry was first established in India under the jurisdiction of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Sugarcane is produced more in both of these provinces. Electricity is available in plenty here. Labor is also cheap here. Now gradually a trend is emerging to open sugar mills in Maharashtra and other southern states.

Sugarcane grown in Southern India has high sugar content. The industry is the Gausami industry, so it can be properly managed by a cooperative society. Cooperative societies are well organized and successful in Southern India, especially in Maharashtra.

13 Give any four reasons for the development of the sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh.

Answer- Due to the development of the sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh is at the forefront of the sugar industry in India. About half of the sugar produced in India is produced in Uttar Pradesh alone. The following are the main reasons for this-

(a) Uttar Pradesh is the home of sugarcane. The land it is fertile, and there is plenty of sunshine. And the annual rainfall is also more than 100 cm. All these things are very helpful in the production of sugarcane.

(b) The electricity required for the sugar industry also becomes abundantly available there.

(c) The labor is also cheap there. Some laborers in their area and especially laborers from the state of Bihar become available in large quantities.

(d) The population of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar is also considerable, so a lot of the sugar produced is consumed here.

14 Explain the reasons for the southward shift of the sugar industry in India.

Answer – For a long time, North India has remained the center of the sugar industry. LonelyHalf of India’s sugar mills exists in Uttar Pradesh. but now slowly there is a tendency to open sugar mills in South India. many forThe reasons are responsible-

(a) It has been proved experimentally that sugar in sugarcane grown in South Indiaquantity is more.

(b) Many states like Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, etc. have now started showing more interest in the cultivation of sugarcane.

(c) Sugar is an item of export as the coastal facilities are more in the south. are available, not in the north, hence the development of the sugar industry in the south has more opportunities.

15 Why are most of the jute mills in India located in West Bengal?

Answer – Because most of the jute mills of India are located in West Bengal-

  • (a) There is a lot of jute cultivation in West Bengal. That’s why raw material is available for these industries.
  • (b) Calcutta is a very big metropolis due to which sacks and clothes made from jute are consumed.
  • (c) Due to the high population in Bengal, cheap laborers are available for these industries.
  • (D) There has been a lot of development in the means of transport in Bengal, so hereto bring raw materials to the industries easy to send.

16 Discuss the development and distribution of the jute industry in India.

Answer – Jute Industry – India is the largest producer of jute and jute-made goods and is also the second largest exporter after Bangladesh. There are about 70 jute industries in India. Most of these are in the Hooghly River in West Bengal.But 98 km long and 3 km wide is situated in a Sakri belt.

The reasons for their location on the banks of the Hooghly River are the following – proximity to jute-producing areas, cheap water transport, road, rail, and water transport network helpful in carrying raw material to the mills, abundant water to process raw jute, Availability of cheap labor from West Bengal and neighboring states of Orissa, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, Kolkata being a major urban center, providing port facilities for banking, insurance and export of jute goods, etc.

cost challenges to the industry include competition from synthetic fabrics in the international market and from other countries such as Bangladesh, Brazil, the Philippines, Egypt, and Thailand. Although its domestic demand has increased due to the government’s policy of compulsory use of jute packing, yet product diversification is also necessary to increase the demand.

The National Jute Policy was adopted in the year 2005. The main objective of which was to increase the production of jute, improve the quality, provide good prices to the jute-producing farmers and increase the productivity per hectare. Major buyers of jute are America, Canada, Russia, Arab countries, England, and Australia.

17 Why is the cotton textile industry in India concentrated more in Mumbai and Ahmedabad?

Answer – The following are the reasons for the development of the cotton textile industry in Mumbai and Ahmedabad centers-

(a) Availability of raw material – Cotton is cultivated in large quantities in the black soil of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Therefore, cotton is easily obtained for cotton cloth.

(b) Climate- These centers are situated near the sea where an even and humid climate is suitable for spinning and picking yarn.

(C) Port facility- The facility of importing machines for cotton industries from abroad and export of finished goods or ready-made cotton clothes is obtained from Mumbai port.

(d) Convenience of means of transport and power- Both these centers are connected to other parts of the country by rail, road, and airways. Here the means of power are available due to the development of thermal electricity and hydroelectricity. Therefore, the development of the cotton textile industry has increased.

18.Discuss the information technology and electronics industry of India.

  • Years: In the products coming under the electronic industry, from transistors to television, telephone, cellular telecom, telephone exchange, pager, radar, computer, and much other equipment useful for the telecommunication industry are made. Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important manufacturing centers of electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai Kolkata, and Lucknow.
  • In addition, 18 Software Technology Parks, provide single window service to software experts and high data communication facilities.
  • The main importance of this industry is also to provide employment. 31 March 2005As of 2010, the number of persons engaged in the information technology industry was more than one million. This number is likely to increase eight times in the next three to four years.
  • Of this, 30 percent are women. This industry has become an important source of earning foreign exchange. The reason for the success of the information technology industry in India is the continuous development of hardware and software.

19 Most of the iron and steel industries are concentrated in the plateau region of Chhotanagpur.Are. Give reason.

Answer – Most of the iron and steel industries are concentrated in the plateau region of Chhotanagpur. The region has more favorable relative conditions for the development of this industry. These include (a) the low cost of iron ore, (b) the proximity of high-quality raw materials, (c) cheap labor, and (d) the huge potential for demand in the local market.

20 India is an important iron-steel-producing country in the world, however, its full potential has not been developed. Give reason.

Answer – India is an important iron and steel-producing country in the world, however, we haven’t been able to develop its full potential.The reasons for this are-

(a) High cost and limited availability of coking coal,

(b) low labor productivity,

(c) irregular supply of energy and

(d) Underdeveloped infrastructure etc.

21 Why is it important in our country to keep the looming produced by factories less as compared to the looming produced by power looms and handlooms?

Answer- The reason for this is to provide employment opportunities to more and more people by promoting the cottage industry. This is necessary because heavy machines are used in factories and labor is least required.

22 Why is it necessary for us to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities?

Ans- (a) The possibilities of employment can increase if there is improvement in the weaving sector.

(b) With the improvement of weaving, better quality cotton products and clothes can be prepared.

(c) every means of making yarn from fiber, cloth from yarn, and garment from cloth; But the price increases.

(d) It can earn more foreign exchange.

23 Why did Mahatma Gandhi lay stress on spinning yarn and weaving Khadi?

Ans- (a) So that more and more people can get employment.

(b) To awaken the feeling of nationalism.

(c) To promote the cottage industry.

(d) reducing dependence on foreign cloth and boycotting foreign cloth to do.

Long answer Type questions

1. How is the integrated steel industry different from the mini steel industry? What are the problems of this industry? Under which reforms its production capacity has increased?

Difference between the post-integrated steel industry and mini steel industry-

  • (a) Integrated steel industries are much larger in size than mini steel industries.
  • (b) In integrated steel industries, all the steel-related activities take place in a single complex. From raw material to steel making, molding, and shaping. Whereas scrap steel and sponge iron are used in mini steel plants.which it gets from integrated steel industries.
  • (c) While all types of steel are manufactured in an integrated steel plant. Whereas, only mild and mixed steel is manufactured in the Mini Steel Plant. It happens.

Problems of the steel industry-

  • (a) To counter the competition from steel-exporting countries like ChinaDoes matter.
  • (b) It also faces the problem of high cost and limited availability of coking coal.
  • (c) Underdeveloped infrastructure also creates many hindrances in its way.
  • (d) Low labor productivity is also a problem.
  • (e) Irregular supply of energy also creates difficulties for it.

The following improvements have increased its production capacity-

  • (a) Liberalization has given a lot of impetus to this industry.
  • (b) Many entrepreneurs in the private sector have also given a lot of encouragement to these industries with their efforts.
  • (c) Foreign direct investment has also helped this industry to flourish. But by regulating the means of development and research this steel industry
  • progress can be further accelerated.

2 Discuss the various measures taken by industries to reduce environmental degradation.

Answer- Various measures to reduce environmental degradation by industries-

  • (a) Use of water power We should use the electricity generated by water instead of the electricity generated from coal, wood or mineral fast which pollutes the air. In such a situation, less smoke will enter the atmosphere, due to which it will remain very pure.
  • (b) Use of good quality coal in generating thermal power – Many scientists have suggested that if thermal power is to be generated from coal, then the best quality coal should be used which emits less smoke. In this way the pollution of the environment will be reduced.
  • (c) Moving the factories away from the cities- All such factories which release smoke and poisonous gases in the atmosphere should be taken away from the cities so that they do not further pollute the environment of the cities. The Supreme Court has done commendable work in this direction. When the Delhi government was ordered to take the polluting factories out of the limits of the corporation.
  • (d) Water should be treated before leaving the polluted water in the rivers – if the water of the factories has to be thrown into the rivers, then first. If treated, pollution can be controlled.

3. What are the three problems the Indian cotton textile industry is facing? Give three ways to solve these problems.

Three problems facing the Indian cotton textile industry-

(a) The first problem is that the technology in this industry is very old and useless. It’s over

(b) The cotton mills have become very old due to which a lot of expenditure is incurred in their maintenance. Buildings and machinery are also in dilapidated condition which leads to a high cost of production resulting in unemployment and industrial inertia arises.

(c) The cotton produced in our country is not long-staple, so we had to import long-staple cotton from abroad, especially Egypt.

Ways to solve problems-

(a) We were given the latest technology to make cotton cloth by improving the old technology. Technology should be adopted.

(b) Efficiency and economy will have to be brought in cotton cloth mills and factories so that wasteful expenditure can be stopped. This is necessary so that we do not have to shut down the mills and do not face the need for the retrenchment of artisans.

4 Why are the iron and steel industries located only in peninsular India?

Answer – Peninsular India is made up of ancient hard rocks which are rich in terms of mineral wealth. Six major iron and steel centers of India are located in this region, which are as follows- Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Kulti, Burnpur, Durgapur, Rourkela, and Milai.Along with saving money, the cloth can also be made better.

The following are the reasons for the location of the iron-steel center in peninsular India-

  • (a) Availability of raw material Iron industry’s raw material is heavy and a large quantity is required, so the iron industry is in need of raw materials. Peninsular India iron ores are established near the region. It is rich in minerals like manganese, limestone, etc.
  • (B) Water supply: Water is used in large quantities in this industry, which is supplied by Damodar, Mahanadi, and Godavari, and its tributaries flowing in this area.
  • (c) Coal and hydro electricity as sources of energy which is available in abundance in this area.
  • (D) Transport and trade: Road and rail routes have been well developed in this area, as well as seaport facilities like Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, and Mumbai.
  • (e) Cheap labor- Due to the dense population labor is available at a cheap rate goThe names of two iron and steel plants in Karnataka are Bhadravati and Vijayanagara and the names of the two iron and steel plants of West Bengal are Burnpur and Durgapur.

Class 10 Geography Solution


Why is iron and steel called the basic industry?

Answer – Iron steel is a basic industry because the development of many other industries depends on it such as the heavy engineering and machine tool shipbuilding industry, heavy motor vehicle manufacturing industry, aircraft industry, electronic goods and women’s electrical equipment, railway engines, fertilizers Defense material, etc.

Name any two major requirements of the cement industry.

Answer – Electricity and limestone etc. are the two main requirements of the cement industry. The grinding of limestone requires a lot of power, so it is difficult to set up this industry without the availability of power. Apart from electricity and limestone, the availability of cheap labor also proves useful.

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