NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

Chapter NameMinerals and Energy Resources
Medium English
Study MaterialsQuestion Answer

very short answers type questions

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer in Hindi
NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer in Hindi

1.Give four examples each of metallic and non-metallic minerals.

Answer – Metallic minerals – Iron ore, copper, gold, bauxite etc. Non-metallic minerals – coal, petroleum, mica, potash etc.

2 Name the four important iron-ore producing states of India. 

Answer – Four important iron-ore producing states of India-

(a) Jharkhand, (b) Chhattisgarh, (c) Orissa and (d) Goa. Name four important manganese ore producing states of India.

3 Answer – Four important manganese ore producing states of India-

Answer-(a) Maharashtra, (b) Madhya Pradesh, (c) Orissa and (d) Andhra Pradesh.

4. Name the four bauxite producing states of India

Years:Four bauxite producing states of India-(a) Jharkhand, (b) Orissa, (c) Gujarat and (d) Maharashtra.

5. Name the four famous mica producing states of India.

Answer – Four important famous mica producing states of India-(a) Jharkhand, (b) Bihar, (c) Andhra Pradesh and (d) Rajasthan.

Name the three most important coal producing states of India.

Answer- The three most important coal producing states of India-

(a) Jharkhand, (b) West Bengal and (c) Chhattisgarh.

7. Write the names of four states in India where limestone is found?

Answer – Names of four states in India where limestone is found-

(a) Madhya Pradesh, (b) Chhattisgarh, (c) Rajasthan and (d) Karnataka.

8 What are the sources of commercial energy?

Answer – Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Uranium, Hydropower for commercial energyis shell.

9 What are the sources of conventional energy?

Answer- Coal, petroleum, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear power are the sources of traditional.

10 What is non-conventional energy source?

Answer – Non-conventional energy sources are inexhaustible sources of energy. Like- solar-oo wind, waves, and geothermal energy.

11 What is geothermal energy?

Ans- The electricity generated using the heat from the internal parts of the earth is called geothermal energy.

Name any six sources of non commercial energy.

Answer- Six sources of non-commercial energy-

(a) wind energy,

(b) solar energy,

(c) tidal energy,

(d) cow dung gas,

(e) energy generated from waste,

(f) Geothermal energy.

Name three petroleum producing regions of India.

Answer – Three petroleum producing regions of India-

(a) The Bombay High area in the Arabian Sea,

(b) Ankleshwar in Gujarat,

(c) Nahar Katia region of Assam.

Mention any four uses of manganese ore.

Ans- Manganese is used in making iron and steel and alloys. It is used for making bleaching powder, insecticides, dyes and done in

15 Which are the two states which have the largest reserves or deposits of coal?

Answer – Jharkhand and West Bengal.

16 What are the main areas of oil production in India?

Answer – Northern Gangetic Plain, Brahmaputra Valley, Coastal Region, Gujarat, Thar Desert,Andaman Nicobar etc. 63% of India’s oil produced from Mumbai High alone

is obtained.

17 Name the six nuclear power stations of India.

North-Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Rawatbhata (Rajasthan), Narora (UP), Kakrapara(Gujarat), Tarapur (Maharashtra) and Kaiga (Karnataka) etc.

Where is ‘Mumbai High’ located?

Answer – This offshore development area is located near Mumbai in the Arabian Sea.

19 Description of two suggestions to develop the Nivelli Lignite field (belt)Do it.

Ans- In the industrialization of Tamil Nadu, the production of thermal power produced by lignite coal of Neyveli region has been a very useful contribution.

Although these mines are of artisanal structure, efforts should be made to extract water from these opencast mines. This is a difficult task, yet it is necessary to do this work for the industrialization and progress of Tamil Nadu.

class 10th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Write the names of any two iron ore belts of India.

Answer – (a) Orissa Jharkhand belt, (b) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt.

Give two importance of petroleum and natural gas.

Answer- Two importance of petroleum and natural gas-

(a) Petroleum is an important source of production of power. It is widely used in factory vehicles and ships etc.

(b) Natural gas is widely used as a domestic fuel, while it can also be used as a raw material. It doesn’t even cause that much pollution.

Short answer Type questions

1. What are minerals? What is its economic importance?Or, what is a mineral? 

Ans- Minerals are natural chemical compounds. There is similarity in composition and structure in these. These are components of rocks and ores. They are originated by various geological processes taking place in the earth’s interior.

Economic importance of mineral-

(a) Minerals have their own special importance because they have contributed a lot in the progress of human beings. (b) Various types of minerals were heavily used in the industrial age.also throws light on their economic importance.

2 Why do we need to conserve minerals?Or, Why the conservation of minerals is necessary? Explain any three methods of conservation of minerals.

Answer- After using minerals once, they cannot be found again. If the minerals are misused then the coming generations may have to face problems. Therefore conservation of minerals is necessary.

Three methods of conservation of minerals-

(a) Minerals should be used in a planned manner.

(b) In order to save minerals, the use of other things should be thought of in their place.

(c) Promotion of circular use of metals wherever possible, such as melting iron to make iron, gold to gold, etc.

How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?

Answer – The rocks which were first formed on the earth are called igneous rocks. Whereas when these rocks change form due to some pressure or heat (like limestone in marble), then those rocks are called metamorphic rocks.

Minerals are found in the cracks, joints, pores etc. of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Smaller deposits are called veins while larger deposits are found in the form of layers. They are also often formed when they are pushed towards the Earth’s surface with the help of cracks in liquid or gaseous state.

On reaching the top, they cool down and freeze on the surface of the earth. Zinc, copper, zinc and lead are the main metallic minerals thus found in small or large deposits and layers.

4. Throw light on the distribution of coal in India.

There is about 21400 million tonnes of coal reserves in North India. Nowadays 33 crore tonnes of coal is extracted in India every year. Most of the coalfields are found in the northeastern part of the peninsular plateau.

Two-thirds of the total coal production is extracted in Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Orissa. The remaining one-third of the coal is obtained from Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh. The major coal-producing areas in the country are as follows-

(a) Jharkhand’s Major mining areas are Bokaro, Jharia, Giridih, and Ramgarh.

(b) Madhya Pradesh Major areas are Umaria and Sohagpur.

(c) Chhattisgarh – The major coalfields are Korba and Ambikapur. (d) Orissa Major coalfields are in Sambalpur and Sundergarh districts. ,

Describe the distribution of iron ore in India.

Answer- India has about 20 percent iron ore reserves of the world. Iron ore is mined in India mainly in the states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Goa, and Karnataka. More than 95% of the total production is obtained in these states. Apart from these, iron is found in many other states. The major iron-producing regions of the country are as follows-

(a) Chhattisgarh – Most of the iron in this state is of hematite variety. Iron is produced here in Durg, Bastar, and Dantewada districts. Bailadila Rawghat is the main iron field in the Bastar district.

(b) Jharkhand – Iron ore is extracted in the western and eastern Singhbhum districts here. The main areas here are Gua and Noamundi.

(c) Orissa Leah production is done in Sundergarh, Keonjhar, and Mayurbhanj districts.

(d) Karnataka – Bababudan Pahari Ku and Kalahandi area of ​​Chikmagalur district of this state are prominent. Iron is also obtained from Bellary, Chitradurga, Shimoga, and districts. Tumkur

(e) Goa- Iron is found in the northern part of Goa.

6 Explain any four iron ore belts of India.

Answer – Four major iron ore belts of India-

(a) Orissa Jharkhand Belt- In Orissa, a high-quality hematite variety of iron ore is extracted from the Badam Pahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts. Due to this, hematite ore is mined from Gua and Noamundi in the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

(b) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt- This belt is found under the states of Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh. In Chhattisgarh’s Bastar district, Bailadila hill ranges contain hematite of excellent quality, in which 14 deposits of iron of this quality are found. It has the best physical properties required in steel making. Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea from Visakhapatnam port.

(c) Bellary-Chitradurga, Chikmagalur Tumkur belt- A large amount of laud ore is accumulated in this belt of Karnataka. The mines of Kudremukh, located in the Western Ghats in Karnataka, are 100 percent export units. The Kudremukh deposits are considered to be one of the largest deposits in the world. The iron ore is sent in slum form by pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

(d) Maharashtra-Goa belt This belt is located in the Goa and Ratnagir districts of Maharashtra state. Although the iron here is not of the best quality, it is exploited efficiently. from Marmagao port. export it

7 What are sedimentary rocks or rocks and what are their characteristics?

Answer – These rocks are formed by the particles of soil, and stone brought by the rivers for thousands of years. Occurs due to the accumulation of One layer of soil and stone particles get deposited on top of another layer and in this way, sedimentary rocks are formed.

A great feature of these rocks is that the remains of trees and animals are also buried in them. With the help of these remains, scientists have also gained knowledge of the construction period of these chahanas. Some prime examples are coal and lime.

8 What are igneous rocks or rocks? What are their characteristics?

Answer- On the basis of origin, rocks are divided into three main categories-

(a) igneous rocks or rocks,

(b) sedimentary rocks or rocks,

(c) Metamorphic rocks or rocks.

Igneous rocks are the ones that originated first. They were first created on the surface of the earth. That’s why they are sometimes also called early rocks. These rocks were formed by the cooling of hot lava coming out from inside the earth. Particles of different types of metals are found in such rocks.

9 What are metamorphic rocks? What is their main feature?

Answer – Metamorphic rocks or rocks are the changed form of igneous or sedimentary rocks. Under the influence of centuries of pressure or heat, igneous or sedimentary rocks turn into metamorphic rocks, and new minerals are formed.

As-Lime turns into marble and shale turns into slate. transformed rocks or rocks are stronger than both igneous and sedimentary rocks and due to their strength, their value also increases considerably.

10 What is limestone? Where is it found?

Answer – Limestone – Limestone is found in rocks made of calcium or calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. It is mostly found in sedimentary rocks. Limestone is a basic raw material for the cement industry and is essential for iron-smelting furnaces.

Write the names of four types of iron ore.

Answer – Four types of iron ore are given below-(percentage of iron)

  • (a) Magnetide(60 to 70 percent iron content),
  • (b) haematide(40 to 50 percent iron content).
  • (c) Limonite (40 to 50 per cent iron content),
  • (d) siderite

12 What do you understand by biogas? What are its benefits?

Ans: Biogas is a useful source of a non-exhaustive type of energy. It is produced from the waste materials of animals and chickens and human excreta. Gobar gas plants meet the energy needs of the rural people in the villages. This type of energy is used for lighting houses and streets, farming, and irrigation in every village. These plots are constructed individually or by the whole community of the village. In big cities, biogas is produced from sewage.

13 Why is Khetri famous? Also, mention the name of the state in which it is situated.

Answer – Khetri is very famous for its copper mines. There is a shortage of copper in India, so we have to spend a lot of money on its import. In this way, eating copper from Khetri has proved to be a boon for India. They have saved a lot of valuable foreign exchange. Khetri is located in the state of Rajasthan. Very

Explain the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.

Answer – Metallic minerals are divided into two parts-

(a) Iron Minerals- All those metals which contain iron content are called iron minerals such as iron ore, manganese, nickel, and cobalt etc.

(b) Non-ferrous minerals – All those metals which do not contain any part of iron are called non-ferrous minerals. For example, copper, lead, zinc bauxite, etc.

15 Differentiate between commercial and non-commercial energy.

Answer- Difference between commercial energy and non-commercial energy-

commercial energynoncommercial energy
(a) Coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower, and nuclear are the sources of energy.(a) Firewood, charcoal, and cow dung are sources of non-commercial energy.
(b) It is used in industries, transport, and other businesses.(b) It is used for domestic work.

16 Differentiate between anthracite and bituminous coal. 

Answer- Difference between anthracite and bituminous coal-

andesite coalbituminous coal
(a) It is the best grade of coal.(a) It is medium-grade coal.
(b) It contains more than 80% carbon.(b) It contains 60-80% carbon. 
(c) It is black-colored hard and high-density coal.(c) It is also black in color but its density is less than anthracite.
((d) In India it is found only in Jammu and Kashmir.(d) It is found in Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh in India.

Explain the difference between the means of conventional energy and non-conventional energy. 

Difference between the means of non-conventional energy and non-conventional energy-

conventional energynon conventional energy
(a) It is a source of energy used since ancient times, which is limited in quantity. (a) These are also used since ancient times but their importance has increased in today’s context.
(b) It is a means to an end. (b) It is an inexhaustible resource.
(c) Coal, petroleum, atomic energy, and water power come under the category of conventional energy.(c) Energy prepared from solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, wind energy, garbage waste, cow dung, and excreta comes in this category.
((d) It is a convenient and widely used form of energy.(d) Non-conventional sources of energy are easily available but their use is not widespread and on a large scale.

Explain the difference between natural gas and biogas.

Answer- Difference between natural gas and biogas-

natural gasbiogas
(a) The gas found with mineral oil and without mineral oil is called natural gas.(a) The gas produced after the decomposition of organic matter is called biogas.
(b) It is mainly used for pollution, transport, and in domestic work. (b) It is mainly used for small domestic purposes.
(c) Natural gas is an exhaustible and conventional source of energy.(c) Energy is an inexhaustible resource.
(d) The gas used in domestic works is called LPG and the gas used in vehicles is called CNG.(d) There is no classification of this gas.

Explain the difference between metallic and non-metallic minerals. 

Answer- Difference between metallic and non-metallic minerals-

metallic mineralsnonmetallic mineral
(a) Metallic minerals are good conductors of electricity.(a) Non-metallic minerals are poor conductors of electricity.
(b) Metallic minerals are shiny and can be polished. They are in a solid state.(b) Non-metals are not shiny and cannot be polished. They can be in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state.
(c) The minerals which contain metals are called metallic minerals. Like iron, copper, etc. (c) Metals are not found in non-metallic minerals. For example, coal, sulfur, limestone, etc. 
(d) Metallic minerals are not found in pure form.(d) Non-metallic minerals are found in pure form.

Explain the difference between mineral and ore.

Answer- Difference between mineral and ore-

(a) Those natural substances which are found below the earth’s surface are called minerals. E.g. Galena, Gypsum, Calcium.(a) Those minerals from which metals can be obtained easily and at a low cost are called ores. For example, oxide ore, and sulfide ore.
(b) All minerals are not ores. (b) All ores are minerals.

Long answer Type questions

1 The future of solar energy in India is bright. Why?

Ans- (a) India is a tropical or a hot country so there is more potential for solar energy production potential. According to an estimate, it is about 20 MW per square kilometer per year.

(b) Photovoltaic technology is available in India by which sunlight can be directly converted into electricity.

(c) Sunlight is a free gift of nature so lower-class people can easily take advantage of solar energy.

(d) While sources of energy like coal, petroleum, and natural gas cannot be reused once, solar energy is a renewal source. It can be used again and again.

(e) By using solar energy we can save a lot of foreign exchange which is used for oil, Due to the import of gas, etc. we have to give to other countries.

(f) We can use solar energy in many ways, such as for cooking, pumping water, heating water, sterilizing milk, lighting streets, etc.

2 What are the different sources of energy in India? Describe.

Answer- Coal, mineral oil, atomic energy, and electricity, etc. are the main sources of energy. Their details are as follows-

(a) Coal – It is the primary source of power. It is also used as an industrial raw material. Water is converted into steam by coal, which became the basis of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines, which use coal, are used in railways and industries.

(b) Mineral oil – It is a highly combustible material. It is used in internal combustion engines. Diesel, kerosene oil, petrol, aviation spirit, etc. are obtained by refining mineral oil. This provides driving power to transport, ships, aircraft, etc.

(c) Natural gas is widely used as a source of power. Now gas is being transported to far-off places with the help of pipes and various types of industrial units are benefiting from it. Gases are being found along with mineral oil and also separately.

(d) Hydroelectricity – To generate it, the power of falling water is used to drive a turbine. It is the cheapest source of power known so far. The biggest advantage of hydropower is that its sources do not get depleted even after continuous experiments because water resources are renewable.

(e) Nuclear energy – To obtain it, molecules break down substances under controlled conditions. This gives immense energy which is used for various purposes.

(f) Other sources of energy There are many non-conventional sources of power that can be used sustainably. Among these sources of power sun, wind, tide, geothermal biogas, geothermal energy, etc. have a remarkable place. Briefly describe the non-conventional sources of energy.

non-conventional sources of energy

(a) Wind energy- Wind energy is used to pump out water, irrigate fields and generate electricity. It is estimated that some 20,000 megawatts of electricity can be generated from the wind. At this time some 990 megawatts of electricity obtained from the wind is added to the power grid. Wind power is used in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, and Maharashtra.

(b) Tidal Energy- The Gulf of Kutch and Cambay are more suitable for the development of tidal energy.

(c) Geothermal energy is generated from hot water springs in Himachal Pradesh. It is used in cold storage centers.

(d) Biogas- Electricity is also generated from various means of biogas or natural waste materials such as wood obtained from barren land, urban garbage, animal dung, human excreta, sugarcane bagasse, etc.. Electricity is also generated from agricultural waste, such as paddy husk and sugarcane bagasse.

(e) Solar Energy – A huge and renewable store of electricity is also obtained from the Sun. Sun has immense potential to generate energy and it is the universal source of energy. Solar stoves work with this energy. Small and medium-sized solar centers have been set up in rural areas. So that solar energy can be used in these areas for cooking, heating water, drying crops, etc.

Class 10 Geography Solution

Why is Nayveli famous? Also, mention the name of the state in which it is situated.

Answer – Nayveli is a place that is famous not only in India but also all over the world because of its lignite coal mines. Here are the biggest mines of lignite coal. Neyveli is located in the state of Tamil Nadu.

What is an iron mineral? Explain by giving examples.

Ans- Such mineral ores, which contain parts of iron, are called iron minerals. Ferrous minerals include iron ore, manganese ore, chromium, cobalt, tungsten and nickel.

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