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Ncert Class 10 History Chapter 8 Question Answer Novels, Society And History
|Novels, Society, And History
Gentlemen: People who claimed high social status and high family birth. He believed that the standards of correct behavior were set by him.
Epistolary novel: written in the form of a series of letters.
Serial: A method in which a story is published in installments. Each installment appears in the next issue of the newspaper or magazine.
Vernacular: The language of common speech rather than formal, scientist scripture. Grammar: Representation through writing, drawing, painting, etcA way of depicting society in a humorous and clever way.is criticized.
Short and long answer Type questions
1. Write in brief-Explain these-
(a) Social changes in Britain increased the number of readers.
Answer: (i) Since women themselves as characters in literary studies was connected, it was natural for her to be interested in works of literature.
(ii) In the 18th century, due to the Industrial Revolution, prosperity in the middle class increased, due to which women in this class got more time to study.
During this time some novelists made marriage proposals to good-natured women to bring happiness to their lonely lives. Such novels created interest in reading novels among the elite women of rural areas of Britain.
(iv) Over time, these women were portrayed as rebellious women in these novels, which led to the rise and spread of a progressive women’s class. As a result, women started taking interest in literature.
(b) What are the actions of Robinson Crusoe that make him appear to us as a typical colonizer? Considers inferior. After freeing a native person, he makes him his slave. He doesn’t even consider it necessary to ask her her name but starts addressing her as Friday from his own side.
Answer: (i) Crusoe is a special character who separates non-white people from his
(ii) Although Crusoe’s behavior during that time was not considered invalid because most of the writers of that period considered colonialism as a natural and natural phenomenon. Here too Crusoe is an adventurous traveler as well as a slave trader who was not misunderstood during his time.
(c) After 1740 poor people also started reading novels.
Answer: After 1740, poor people also started reading novels due to the following reasons (i) Novels were not cheap in the beginning, but as soon as they become available at low pricesPoor people started getting attracted towards them.
(ii) In 1740, due to mobile libraries in Europe, books were easily available to poor people.
(iii) With the invention of new techniques of printing, the number of books there was a continuous decrease in the quality and price, along with this the interest in books in the poor class increased.
(iv) The income of the people increased as a result of industrial revolution. They started getting some time for rest. The poor class started using this time for studies.
(v) Some novelists chose the characters of their novels from the poor class, which increased their popularity among the poor class.
(vi) Poor people have big hotels, restaurantsdid not have sufficient means to go to the shops ofThrough novels, he used to entertain himself for hours in solitude.Could have Because of this everyone was inspired to read many poor novels.
(d) The novelists of colonial India were writing for a political purpose.
Answer: Many novelists of the 19th century usedMade Indian politics a major base. He used his novels to criticize and treat the evils seen in the society. Apart from this, through his novels, he portrayed the national spirit, internationalism, the evils of subjugation, patriotism and the atrocities being committed by the British rule. He portrayed India as a great land and thus encouraged India’s freedom struggle and nationalist movement. Of
2. Explain the changes in technology and society that led to an increase in the readership of novels in eighteenth century Europe.
Answer: In the 18th century, there was a great change in the European society, due to which there was a huge increase in the readership of the novel. its followingThe reason is
(i) The world created in the novels was very believable and interesting. Once the reader starts reading this strange andHe used to get entangled in the attractive world.
(ii) Novels could be read completely alone or even together with friends and relatives. Charles Dickens’ novel The Pickwick Papers in 1896
(iii) Chhapana was an important event that took place during this period. Illustrated and inexpensive magazines had their own charm in which serial printing further increased the interest of readers.
(iv) Novels are very close to the lives of common people, that is why common people take more interest in them.
(v) Novels use the common language of common people. The novel creates the shared world of the various communities of a nation by creating proximity to the different languages of the people. As a result, they are more popular among the common people.
3.Write a comment on the following.
(a) Oriya novels
Answer: The first Oriya novel was ‘Saudamini’ by Ram Shankar Rai but it remained unfinished. This was followed in 1902 by six Mano
A novel named Aaton Guthi was published which was written by Fakir Mohan Senapati. This novel was translated on six acres and 92 decimals of land. Through this the author had raised the problems related to the landowners and the ownership of the land. This great novelist of Orissa served as an inspirational writer for the writers of Bengal and the meaning areas of India.
(b) Portrait of women by Jane Austen
Answer: Jane Austen’s novels depict the elite rural society of 19th-century Britain. Where women were encouraged to make ‘good marriages’ by finding husbands who were rich or had property. There is a line in one of his novels Pride and Prejudice. “It is a well-accepted truth that a single man if he is rich, will seek a number of wives”, this line by Austin is emblematic of the materialistic culture’s inclination.
(c) The picture of the new middle class shown in the novel Pariksha-Guru
Answer: Pariksha Guru, written in 1882, has the distinction of being the first novel in the Hindi language. Its author was Shri Niwas Das. Through this he has highlighted the following social aspects-
(i) In this novel young people from prosperous and wealthy families are warned against the moral dangers of bad company. This novel, it has been told how people find it difficult to keep pace with colonial rule. At the same time, their cultural traditions and what attitude they adopt toward the violations in their presence.
(iii) In this novel, the middle class in the world of modernity in colonial India feels terrible and attractive at the same time.
(iv) ‘Pariksha Guru’ tells the reader the right way to live. At the same time, he expects from every human being that they became shrewd and practical in society and their socialProtect values and traditions. Through this novel, an appeal is also made to the youth of the society to inculcate the habit of reading the news. But the author also gives a message to the readers that they should do all this without compromising the prescribed social values of the middle class. Despite the above features, this novel does not attract readers due to its highly objective style.
4. Discuss some of the social changes in nineteenth century Britain that Thomas Hardy and Charles Dickens wrote about.
Answer: The Social Society of Britain in the 19th Century by the author Thomas HardyMention of changes
(i) The famous 19th century novelist Thomas Hardy wrote about the rapidly disappearing pastoral community of England. This was also the time when the big farmers had enclosed their lands and started producing with machines. We see this change in Hardy’s novel ‘The Mayor of Casterbridge’ published in 1886. The protagonist of this novel succeeds in becoming mayor of a country town called Casterbridge.
He is a man of independent thoughts but his attitude with his employees was erratic which was sometimes very kind and sometimes cruel. In contrast, his rival Donald Farfe’s efficient management techniques treated everyone equally and eventually the mayor could not compete with his rival. Therefore, in this novel, Hardy has described the vanishing time in which there was familiarity.
5.Social changes in Britain in the 19th century by Charles Dickens
Years :Charles Dickens in his novels wrote about the ill effects of industrialization on the life and character of the people. His novel ‘Hard Times’ published in 1854 depicts a fictional industrial town of Conkroun. Here the laborers are known by the noun of ‘hand’ and have no identity other than running the machine.
Dickens fiercely criticized not only the greed of profit but also those ideas which consider human beings as mere tools of production.
Similarly, Oliver Twist, another novel by Dickens, also describes the plight of urban life in the era of industrialization. The character of this novel who is an orphan has to live in a world of petty criminals and beggars. After growing up in a cruel burkhouse, the main character, O Liver, is adopted by a wealthy man and lives happily ever after. Thus the play has ended happily. But this does not happen in the novel related to every poor person.
6., Briefly describe the concerns that arose about women reading novels in both nineteenth-century Europe and India. What do these concerns reveal about how women were viewed at the time?
Answer: Concern about European women reading 19th-century novels—most 19th-century novels played an important role in popularizing the domestic role of European women. But on the contrary, novelists like Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855) also presented such an image of women who fight social norms before accepting them. Jane Eyre, written in 1874 by Charlotte Brontë, depicts a free-spirited and determined young woman, Jane, who, at the age of ten, stuns everyone by giving a befitting reply to the hypocrisy of her elders.
Concern about Indian women reading novels in the 19th century – Indian girls and women were reading novels in homes, schools and libraries, despite many family restrictions in colonial India. But some narrow-minded parents used to prevent their daughters from reading novels. They were worried about the bad effects of novels on women because in their eyes, women are easily confused.
Based on the above facts, we can say thatIn India and Europe, women who read novels earlyWas considered to be delusional, frivolous and supportive of her male partner.
7.How was the novel beneficial to both the colonizers and the nationalists in colonial India?
Answer: There is no doubt that literature is the mirror of the society.
By reading the novels, one can easily get to know about the dress-clothing, worship-recitation, their beliefs and ethics of the people.
Tell us about the issue of caste in novels in our country.If he is influenced by the society, then the society is also influenced by him. Novels benefited and influenced both the colonialists in India and the people of India, which can be described as follows-
(i) Through novels, the colonial government got an invaluable source of information related to the indigenous life customs of India because it is very important to have knowledge about the society there to rule any country.
(iii) Indians used novels to criticize the evils prevailing in the society.
(iv) Through these, the feeling of national pride was communicated to the readers by glorifying the ancient times.
(v) As a result of the novels, a different kind of collectivism developed in India on the common basis of language.
(vi) Which character of the novel, how he speaks, became the symbol of his region, class or caste. In this way, through the novel, people came to know how the people of their area speak their language differently.How was it picked up?
8.Give examples of any two novels andExplain how he tried to inspire the readers to think about current social issues.
Answer: In the 19th century, many writers raised the caste system, lower castes and minorities as well as some social issues in their novels in India. two examples ofare like this
(i) O. Chandu Menon raised the issue of caste system through his novel ‘Idulekha’. It dealt with a matrimonial problem of the ‘upper caste’, based on the story of the Namboodiri Brahmins, who were the big landlords of Kerala at this time, and the Nair caste groups. In this, the new generation of Nairs object to the relationship of Nair women with Namboodiri Brahmins.
(ii) In this context another novel ‘Saraswati Vijayam’ is noteworthy which was written in Kerala in 1892. Caste oppression has also been strongly criticized through this oppression novel. In it, the protagonist runs away to the city to escape from an ‘untouchable’ Brahmin landlord. He embraces Christianity and returns to the local court as a judge. Both these novels make the reader aware of the social condition of that time.forces you to think.
9. State the significance of an all-India association in Indian novels.What kind of efforts were made to create a feeling.
Answer: (i) Novels written on Marathas and Rajputs played an important role in spreading the feeling of Hindustan Sarva Bharat.
(ii) Due to the writing of novels in English language, Indians living in different parts of the country understood the English language and Roman script and exchanged ideas with the people of other regions. In this way, the feeling of social, linguistic and cultural unity developed, which gave strength to the feeling of all-Indianness.
(iii) Different languages are spoken in India but there is almost uniformity in traditions, customs, religious deities, life style etc. in all regions. The novelists here raised similar rural life, social problems, political problems etc. in their novels. These were translated into different languages of India, due to which different speaking people became familiar with each other’s thoughts. All these factors inculcated the idea of pan-Indianness among the Indian people. Proved to be helpful.