Ncert Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question Answer Print Culture and the Modern World 

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Ncert Class 10 History Ch-7 Question Answer Print Culture and the Modern World pdf

Chapter NamePrint Culture and the Modern World
Medium English
Study MaterialsQuestion Answer

new words

Calligraphy Vellum: writing made from parchment or animal skin

The surface of Platen: In letterpress printing, the platen is a board, which was used to press the back of the paper to take an impression of the type. Initially, this ward was made of wood, later it was made of steel.

Compositor: A person who composes text for printing. galley

Ballad: historical narrative of a folk song, which is recited or sung.

Tavern: A place where people came to drink, eat, meet friends, and talk. Protestant Reformation: Reformation movement in the Roman Catholic Church in sixteenth-century Europe. Martin Luther was one of the Protestant reformers. Many currents came out of this movement against Catholicism.

Inquisition (religious court): Roman Catholic institution to punish and identify heretics. Sect A sub-group of a religion.

Panchang: An annual publication giving important information related to the motion of the sun, the moon, the time of tides, and the daily life of the people. Chapbook (गुटका): A term used for pocket book-sized books. These were usually sold by hawkers. These became popular from the time of the printing revolution of the seventeenth century.

Autocracy: Such a system of governance, in which a single person gets complete power, and there is neither constitutional restriction nor legal restriction on it. Ulama Scholars of Sharia and Islamic law.

Very short answer Type questions

When was the first printing press introduced in India?

The first printing press in North India was brought to Goa by the Portuguese in the late 16th century.

2. When and who first invented the printing press?

Answer – Gutenberg did it in 1448 AD.

Which was the first book published by Gutenberg?

Answer- Gutenberg published the first book Bible. It was printed on sheep’s skin and not on paper.

4. Since when did the press grow in India?

Answer – The press started in India in the early 19th century. It played an important role in bringing awareness among the people.

5 Which and when was the first newspaper published in India?

Answer – The first newspaper of India started in 1780, which was named Bengal Gazette.

6 What is Platen?

Answer – In letterpress printing, the platen is a board, which was pressed against the back of the paper to take the type impression. Earlier this board was made of wood. Later steel was made.

7 What do you understand by ballad-song?

Answer – Historical narrative of a folk song, which is sung or narrated.

8 Who was Gutenberg?

Answer – Gutenberg was a great inventor of Germany who invented the press in 1448 AD.

9. What is meant by Reformation?

The movement which was started to reform the post-Catholic religion is called the Reformation movement or Reformation.

10 Are new printers better than old ones?

Answer- New printers print in large numbers and at high speed.

11 When did the editing of a weekly magazine named Bengal Gazette begin?

Answer – In 1780 AD.

12 Name two newspapers published in Farsi in the 19th century.

Answer – (a) Jam-e-Jahannama,

(b) Shamsul newspaper.

13 Which newspaper was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak?

Ans: Kesari

14 Which were the two newspapers published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy?

Answer – Raja Ram Mohan Roy published two newspapers Samad Kaumudi (Bengali) and Miratu Akbar (Persian). These letters were used to propagate social reforms.

15 Which were the two magazines published by Bal Gangadhar?

Answer – The weekly magazine “Kesari” was published in Marathi by Bal Gangadhar. The second magazine “Maratha” was published in English.

16 What is Velam?

Answer – The writing surface is made of parchment or animal skin.

17 What is a galley?

Answer – Metal fame, in which text was made by laying type.

18.Write the names of some nationalist newspapers in India.

Answer – Amrit Bazar magazines started in Bengal in 1868 AD. The Hindu was published in Madras in 1878. By the end of the 19th century, about 500 newspapers and magazines were published in India.

19. Where was the first technology of printing developed?

Answer – In China, Japan and Korea.

20 What do you mean by calligraphy?

Answer – Artistic writing in beautiful curvy letters is called calligraphy.

21 What was the name of the first printed book in Japan which was printed around 868 AD?

Answer – Diamond Sutra, a book related to Buddhism.

22 What was the old name of Tokyo?

Answer – Edo.

23 Who was Martin Luther?

Answer- Martin Luther was a great religious reformer of Germany who gave rise to the Reformation movement by opposing Roman Catholicism.

24 Who is called Kalib?

Answer – Those who prepared manuscripts by writing by hand were called Katib or Calligrapher.

What was the 25 shilling series?

Answer- These were the books which were cheap and which were printed in the 1920s.

State the role of the press.

Answer-Press is a powerful medium, which can keep the society united. It links the activities taking place in one part of the country with the activities in another part.

27 How were handwritten manuscripts preserved in India before the medium of print?

Ans- Manuscripts of different languages ​​were copied on palm leaves or hand-made paper and then bound or stitched on boards with the aim of increasing their life.

28 What are the advantages of the printing press?

Ans- (a) It made it easy to produce books in large quantities.

(b) As a result of easy access to books, where knowledge increased, the number of readers also increased manifold.

29 Name some English newspapers that started in the second half of the 19th century.

The famous newspapers of North-India were The Times of India (1861), The Pioneer (1865), The Madras Mail (1865), The Status Man (1875). The newspapers were supportive of the policies of the British Government.

30 What restrictions were imposed on the Indian press?

Ans- By the Vernacular Press Act passed in 1878 AD, the press people who published in Indian languages ​​were warned that if any news inciting the public was published in their newspaper, then they would be warned first and then that newspaper would be closed. May go.

Which two main deficiencies are found in 31 manuscripts?

Ans-(a) Manuscripts are very expensive, time consuming and laborious to prepare. There is great difficulty.

32 Who was Maxim Gorky? Write the name of one of his literary works.

Answer- Maxim Gorky was a revolutionary Russian writer. The name of one of his famous works is- “My childhood and my university”. In this book, Gorky described the struggles of his childhood which a poor child often has to suffer.

33 Woodblock print came to Europe after 1295. Give reasons.

Answer – Woodblock print or plank printing came to Europe after 1295, there were many reasons for this-

(a) In 1295, the great explorer named Marco Polo returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China. Marco Polo came to Italy with information about Chinese inventions.

(b) Europe was not aware of woodblock printing before 1295 AD. China already had the technology of woodblock printing. Marco Polo brought this knowledge with him.

(c) One of the main reasons why woodblock printing did not arrive in Europe until 1295 was that the nobility, clergy and monks considered printing books to be against religion. Printed books were considered cheap and obscene. Therefore, the printing of books was not encouraged in the beginning.

Martin Luther was in favor of print and openly praised it. Give reasons.

Ans-(a) Luther was a priest of Germany. He was one of the main reformers of the religious reform movement.

(b) He himself went to Rome but he was very sad to see that the Pope and the clergy were far away from spiritual matters and were involved in worldly matters.

(c) Coming back to Germany, he exposed the corrupt life of the Pope and the priests. Soon he began to openly oppose the pardons sold by the Pope. As a result of his efforts, the Protestant faith was born and developed.

(d) 5,000 copies of the New Testament by Martin Luther were sold out within a few weeks and a second edition appeared within three months. That’s why Luther was happy and said – Printing is the greatest gift given by God, the greatest gift.

3 The Roman Catholic Church banned books from the middle of the sixteenth century.Started keeping a list. Give reasons.

Ans- (a) Due to the development of printing technology, new interpretations were introduced in the field of religion. The evils of Catholicism gradually came to the fore. The religious leaders took this as a rebellion against religion.

(b) With the help of printed popular literature, less educated people became familiar with different interpretations of religion. Menocchio, an Italian farmer, made such ideas about God and creation that the Roman Catholic Church became angry with him. He was given the death sentence.

(c) The Roman Church was disturbed by the questions being raised on religion by the common people. (d) As a result, the Roman Church imposed restrictions on publishers and booksellers and started keeping a list of banned books from 1558 AD.andGave.

Mahatma Gandhi said that the fight for Swaraj is actually a fight for expression, press and collectivity. Give reasons.

Ans- (a) Mahatma Gandhi said these words in 1922 AD in the midst of the Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22). According to him, no nation can survive without freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom of association.

(b) If the country has to be free from foreign colonialism, then all these freedoms are very necessary. These three freedoms are essential for the rise of nationalism.

(c) Therefore, when Gandhiji declared Swaraj as his objective, heे Clearly accepted freedom of speech, press and association as an important part of Swaraj.

(d) He clearly said that- Swaraj’s fight is first of all a fight for this endangered freedom.

Write comments on Gutenberg Press.

Ans-(a) Johann Gutenberg invented the modern printing press in 1448 AD. It was known as the Gutenberg Press.

(b) Draw the shapes of all 26 letters of the Gutenberg Roman alphabet and try to make words by moving them around. For this reason, it was known as a ‘movable type printing machine’.

(c) This method remained the basic printing technique for the next 300 years. With this machine, it was possible to print more books in less time. The Gutenberg press could print 250 pages an hour.

(d) The first book to be printed in it was the Bible. In three years he printed 180 copies of the Bible, which was very fast for the time.

Write a note on Erasmus’ view of the printed book.

Answer – Erasmus’s views on the printed book – During 1450 and 1550, printing press had been established in most of the countries of Europe. German printers used to visit other countries, see the work being done there and help in setting up new presses.

As the number of printing presses increased, so did the printing of books. In the second half of the 15th century, there were two million copies of books printed. There was a flood of books in the markets of Europe. In the 16th century, their number reached about 20 million.

Write a note on Vernacular or Desi Press Act. Or, When was the Vernacular Press Act implemented? Why did the colonial government implement it? Mention three reasons.

Answer – The Vernacular Press Act was implemented in 1878 AD. Vernacular or Desi Press Act-

(a) After the Revolution of 1857, there had been a change in the attitude regarding the freedom of the press. The English government, full of anger, was of the opinion that the local presses should be locked. As vernacular newspapers completely

Had become a nationalist.

(b) The colonial government started a debate on it and started controlling it. In 1878 the Vernacular Press Act was passed. It was created according to the Irish Press Law framework.

(c) It gave wide powers to the government to censor reports and editorials (of the vernacular press). The government was keeping a close eye on the local language newspapers being published from different provinces.

(d) When a report came under scrutiny that had a seditious nature, the newspaper was warned. If the warning was ignored, the press was locked and its machines confiscated.

38 Why did some people in 18th-century Europe think that print culture would lead to the end of absolutism and the Enlightenment?

Ans- (a) It was believed in 18th century Europe that progresses and enlightenment takes place through books. Many people believed that books could change the world.

(b) Printing will liberate society from autocracy and terrorist rule and bring about such an era when discretion and intelligence will rule.

(c) Louis Sébastien Mercier, a French novelist in the 18th century, declared that the printing press was the most powerful instrument of progress and that autocracy would blow away in the storm of public opinion it was creating. In Mercier’s novels, the protagonists often turn to read books. They live in the world of books and thus acquire knowledge.

(d) Convinced of the role of the printing press in bringing about the Enlightenment and destroying the basis of absolutism, Mercier said that absolutists should beware because now is the time for them to tremble. You will be shaken by the force of the virtual writer’s pen.

What was the impact of the spread of print culture on women in India in the nineteenth century?

Ans- (a) The spread of print culture in 19th-century India had a huge impact on women. There was a change in the lives of women. Books were written seriously on the life and feelings of women.

(b) Women in middle-class homes started reading more than before. In the middle of the 19th century, when schools were built in big and small towns, liberal fathers and husbands started sending women to study.

(c) There was awareness among the women of both Hindu and Muslim communities. Rashsundari Devi, from a staunchly conservative family, learned to read secretly in the kitchen and later wrote an autobiography titled ‘Amar Jeevan’ which was published in 1876. (d) Hindi printing started in the 1870s after Punjabi, Urdu, Tamil, Bengali, and Marathi. By the twentieth century, printed and sometimes edited magazines for women became popular. After this change, women started reading their favorite books during their leisure time.

10 What was the impact of the spread of print culture on the poor people in India in the nineteenth century?

Answer – In the nineteenth century, the printing culture had the following impact on the poor people in India-

(a) Very cheap books were being sold at the square intersections in the cities of India, due to which poor people also started buying them from the market.

(b) By the end of the nineteenth century, various pamphlets and essays were being written about caste discrimination. (c) Jyotiba Phule, the Marathi leader of the “low-caste” movements, wrote about the atrocities of the caste system in his “Gulamgiri” (1871).

(d) Now the poor people of India started reading the articles written on high-low, caste and religion. As a result, local protest movements and sects also criticized ancient scriptures and dreamed of a new and just society.

11 What was the impact of the spread of printing culture on the reformer in India in the nineteenth century?

Answer—(a) There was a conflict between groups in colonial society in various ways. were being born. There were differences of opinion regarding the explanation of various beliefs in different religions.

(b) Some people were condemning the prevalent rituals and campaigning for their reforms, while others were attacking the arguments of the reformers.

(c) Such debate was sparked among the people and in the press. Printed newspapers and periodicals not only disseminated new ideas, but they also accurately printed complex ideas.

(d) Now people used to go to these places on a large scale and express their feelings by participating in debates. New ideas often emerged from such differences.

12 Why were some people concerned about the accessibility of books? Explain by taking one example each from Europe and India.

Answer- Some people were not happy about the printed books. The people who had welcomed it also had many types of fear in their mind. Many people had many apprehensions about the wide circulation of the printed book and the ease of the printed word, not knowing what effect it would have on the lives of the common people.

Concerned about the accessibility of books, the section believed that books would help people. Rebel and irreligious thoughts will start flourishing and the power of valuable literature will end. This class included religious leaders, emperors, writers and artists etc.

It was the result of the availability of books that common people became familiar with different interpretations of religion. This led to the rise of Protestant ideology in Christianity. Which the Catholic branch saw as a challenge. The religious leaders considered it ‘anti-religion’.

As soon as new meanings of the Bible, God and creation came to the fore, the religious leaders’ ears perked up. Publishers were banned, books were banned and writers were put to death in the name of ‘protection of religion’. The British rule in India saw the books as a serious challenge against the British Raj. The British believed that the books would give rise to anti-British ideas. Therefore, restrictions were imposed on the printing and distribution of books.

How did print culture help in the growth of nationalism in India?

Answer- Printing culture helped in the development of nationalism in India in the following ways-

(a) Print culture contributed significantly to the rise and growth of nationalism in India.

(b) It became a powerful medium through which the feelings of nationalist Indian patriotism spread, propagation of modern economic, social and political ideas and development of awareness among the masses.

(c) It became easier for the nationalists to take their ideas to the masses through the press.

(d) Printing inspired the masses to surrender everything for freedom. Bankimchandra Chatterjee’s novel Anandamath which is called the Bible of modern Bengali patriotism and his song ‘Vande Mataram’ became a source of independence and patriotism for the people of India. Therefore, the development of printing culture awakened the self-pride and patriotism of Indians and led them towards the path of independence.

14 How did the spread of opposing ideas get strength from printing? Write in brief. Or why were some people afraid that printing would spread opposing views? Describe.

Ans- (a) Wide publicity of ideas through the printing press and open the doors of debate and discussion, even those who disagree with the views of the established authority, now

(b) If there is no control over what is being printed and read, rebellious and irreligious ideas start to flourish among the people.

(c) Martin Luther wrote his Ninety-Five Theses criticizing the evil practices of the Roman Catholic Church. The church was challenged to debate. This resulted in a split in the church.

(d) With the help of printed popular literature, less educated people became familiar with different interpretations of religion. Menocchio, a farmer from Italy, made such ideas about God and creation that the Roman Catholic Church became angry with him.

15 Who invented the printing press? Which was the first book published? How was it initially published?

Answer – A German citizen John Gutenberg invented the printing machine. He published the first book ‘Bible’. It was printed on the skin of the dam. He had made the letters by molding Range. Make words by adding these letters and make sentences by adding words. These sentences were kept together in a wooden frame. In this way a page was prepared. By applying ink on these types of letters, that frame was pressed on the paper with the reverse hand. In this way, pages were made one by one. In this way, the book was prepared by gradually adding pages.

16 Why do some historians believe that print culture prepared the ground for the French Revolution? 

Ans-(a) With the enlightenment of printing, the ideas of thinkers like Boltair and Russi were spread.

(b) He criticized tradition, superstition and autocracy. He propagated rationality. This inspired the people to revolt against the monarchy.

(c) All the old values, institutions, and laws of printing paved the way for discussion among the general public on religious and political issues.

(d) In the cartoons and caricatures (satires), a sense emerged that the public was in trouble while the monarchy was immersed in luxury. It also ignited the flame of revolution.

Class 10 History Solution

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