NCERT Class 10 History Ch-3 Question Answers Nationalism in India PDF

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NCERT Class 10 History Ch-3 Question Answers Nationalism in India PDF

Chapter NameNationalism in India
Medium English
Study MaterialsQuestion Answer

Important keywords

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Very Short answers type questions

NCERT Class 10 History Ch-3 Question Answers
Ncert Class 10 History Chapter 3 Question Answer

1 What do you mean by ‘Swaraj’?

Answer – Swaraj refers to such a system of governance as established in self-governing British colonies. In simple language, it means ‘Swaraj’.

2 What is the Chauri-Chaura incident?

Answer – This is a place where in 1922, a meeting was being held against the government. Even when there was no question of molestation, the police opened fire. Angry people set fire to the police station, killing 22 policemen. Gandhiji called off the movement.

What do you understand by picketing?

Answer: A form of demonstration or protest in which people block the way to go inside a shop, factory, or office.

4 What is Nehru Report?

Answer – The Nehru Report was presented on August 10, 1928. It emphasized giving India the status of a nation, setting up a parliamentary system, and fundamental rights.

Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement started?

Answer- In order to get freedom for India and to free the Indian land from the clutches of the British, Mahatma Gandhi started the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 AD.

6 What is meant by the idea of ​​exclusion?

Answer: Boycott is a Gandhian form of protest. Boycott means- refusing to keep contact and association with someone, keeping oneself from participating in activities, and refusing to buy and use his things.

7 Who demanded complete independence?

Answer – The Lahore session of the Congress (1929) has special significance in the history of India’s freedom movement. On December 31, 1929, the resolution of complete independence was passed in the Congress session of Lahore. The president of this convention was Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

8 How long did the non-cooperation movement continue? 

Answer – From 1920 to 1922.

class 10th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Short answer Type questions

1. Nationalism in India Why was the process of the rise of nationalism in the colonies linked to the anti-colonial movement? Give any four reasons.

The process of the rise of nationalism in the post-colonies was linked to the anti-colonial movement. The feeling of love for the nation developed in the colonies.

(a) The East India Company was established in London in 1600 AD, in 1765, Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa became the authority of the company. Nationalism developed due to the establishment of the colony in India and then the establishment of the British Empire in India. Nationalist forces opposed the British in 1857-58. His attempt was unsuccessful but after a long struggle, independence was achieved in 1947.

(b) During the struggle against the colonial rulers, people recognized mutual unity. Together they can drive out foreigners from their country. (c) Due to oppression and repression under the colonies, various groups got organized, and anti-colonial movements started.

(d) Colonialism continued to be opposed in countries like Vietnam, China, Burma, etc. Many Asian, African, and Latin American countries in the world were also inspired by feelings of nationalism. Hence were associated with anti-colonial struggle and movement.

2. How did the First World War contribute to the growth of the National Movement in India?

Answer – (a) A large number of Indians were recruited into the army in the First World War. The free environment and democratic organizations of European countries had an impact on him. The experiences of war gave him confidence in his ability. Democracy can also be established in our country. Political awakening and a strong sense of self-confidence developed after the First World War.

(b) To meet the war expenditure, Britain imposed an additional tax burden on its colonies, as a result of which a critical economic and political situation arose in the colonies. The economic policies of the government led to an unexpected increase in the prices of commodities.

(c) Crops were destroyed in many parts of the country, resulting in a shortage of food grains and famine in many areas. An epidemic like this B flu spread, killing a large number of people.

(d) The British government implemented the Defense of India Act in 1915 AD to curb revolutionary activities in India. After this, the revolutionary movement intensified instead of diminishing.

The form of the government was not only indifferent but non-cooperative towards the above circumstances, as a result of which the feeling of dissatisfaction and rebellion against the government flourished among the people, and people were forced to start the nationalist movement.

3 Why were the people of India opposed to the Rowlatt Act — or, what was the Rowlatt Act? How did Gandhiji oppose the Rowlatt Act? Describe.

Answer – The Imperial Legislative Council of Britain passed a law in 1919 AD against the resistance of the British rule in India. Which is known as Rowlatt Act.

(a) In 1918, the British Government appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Rowlatt. This committee was instructed that what kind of laws should be made to stop the revolutionary movements in India because the law of the country is insufficient.

(b) Through this law, the government got the right to suppress political activities and keep political prisoners in jail without trial for two years. For this reason, Indians opposed the Rowlatt Act.

(c) Gandhi announced non-violent civil disobedience against this unjust law.

(d) This civil disobedience was fixed to begin with a hartal from 6th April 1919.

(e) Rallies and processions were organized in various cities against the Rowlatt Act. Railway workers went on strike. The shops automatically closed. Telegraph service was interrupted. Thus chaos spread in the country.

(f) On April 10, 1919, the police opened fire on a peaceful procession in Amritsar. This enraged the people and started attacking banks, post offices and railway stations.

4 Why did Gandhiji decide to call off the non-cooperation movement?

Answer – The Non-Cooperation Movement was going on in full swing when Mahatma Gandhi called it off in 1922. The following were the reasons for the withdrawal of this movement-

(a) Mahatma Gandhi was a staunch supporter of non-violence and peace, so when he came to know that an agitated mob had killed 22 soldiers by setting fire to the Chauri-Chaura police station, he was disturbed. He no longer believed that he would be able to keep people calm. In such a situation, he thought it appropriate to withdraw the non-cooperation movement.

(b) Secondly, they started thinking that if the people become violent then the British Government will also get agitated and a reign of terror will be established and many innocent people will be killed. Mahatma Gandhi did not want to repeat the massacre like Jallianwala Bagh, so in 1922 he withdrew from the non-cooperation movement.

Write a note on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

Answer – Jallianwala Bagh massacre-

(a) Mahatma Gandhi and Satyapal Kitchlew were arrested in protest against the Rowlatt Act. To protest against this arrest, a public meeting was organized at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on 13 April 1919, the day of Baisakhi festival.

(b) General Dyer, the military administrator of Amritsar, had declared this assembly illegal, but the assembly took place. Then he opened fire there, in which hundreds of people were killed.

(c) After this massacre, the British Government had set up an Inter Commission and after the report of that commission, honors were given to General Dyer. Due to this, Mahatma Gandhi had become non-cooperative, and he had decided to run the non-cooperation movement. (d) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was the most painful incident in the history of India. This sparked a wave of anger across India.

5. What is meant by the idea of ​​Satyagraha?

Answer- In the idea of ​​Satyagraha, the insistence on the power of truth and the search for truth was emphasized by Gandhiji. The meaning of the idea of ​​Satyagraha can be explained in the following way-

(a) If your aim is true and just, you will definitely get successful in the end. Such was the thought of Mahatma Gandhi.

(b) Satyagrahi Ked can be successful in his struggle with the help of non-violence without resorting to vengeance or aggression.

(c) For this the consciousness of the oppressive enemy should be shaken. Not only the hostile enemy but all the people should be motivated to see the truth and accept it instinctively instead of forcing them to accept the truth through violence.

(d) Truth ultimately wins in this struggle. Gandhiji believed that this religion of non-violence could bind all Indians in the thread of unity.

6. What do you know about the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920?

Answer – The non-cooperation movement by the Indian National Congress started in 1920 and ended in 1922.

Its effects were as follows-

(a) This movement generated new enthusiasm among the public.

(b) Hindu Muslims together started fighting against the British.

(c) People left government jobs.

(d) Foreign goods were boycotted. Write a note on Simon Commission.

7. Why was the Simon Commission formed? Why did Indians boycott the Simon Commission?

Ans- (a) In response to the nationalist movement in India, the Tory government of Britain constituted a statutory commission in 1927, which is known as the Simon Commission. The chairman of this commission was Sir John Simon.

(b) All the members of this commission were British, their work was to study the functioning of the constitutional system in India and to give suggestions accordingly.

(c) It was opposed in India because there was not a single Indian member in this commission, all the members were British. Therefore, when the Simon Commission reached India in 1928, it was greeted with slogans of the Simon Commission going back. Congress and Muslim League, all parties took part in the demonstrations.

(d) Lala Lajpat Rai led the protest against this commission in Punjab. The police showered so many lathis on him that he died due to this attack.

8. Compare the image of Bharat Mata and the image of Germany.

Answer- In 1948, German painter Philipp Waite presented his nation as Germany. She is shown wearing a crown of oak leaves as the German oak is a symbol of valor. In India too, many artists like Abanindranath Tagore have shown the nation of India as the symbol of Mother India. In one picture, he has shown Bharat Mata giving education, food, and clothes.

In another picture, Mother India is shown in a different way, completely different from the picture of Abanindranath Tagore. In this picture, Bharat Mata is shown standing between a lion and an elephant and she has a trishul in her hand. Such an image of Bharat Mata may not be liked by all castes.

9. Why was the Swaraj Dal formed? What was its function? 

Ans- (a) Swarajya Dal was formed in 1923 under the chairmanship of Abul Kalam Azad in the special session of Congress (Delhi). Congress allowed the Swarajists to participate in the elections. They got a large number of seats in the Central and Provincial Section Assemblies.

(b) Due to this the British were troubled that they would not be able to pass their policies and proposals easily.

(c) The Swarajists played an important role in maintaining the anti-British sentiment.

10. What do you understand by Dandi March? Write in brief.

Answer- Gandhiji started the Dandi March against the salt law of the British, whose purpose was to violate the salt law. Gandhiji saw salt as a powerful symbol to lead the country to freedom. Salt was an essential part of the common man’s diet and its presence in food was essential from a medical point of view. Therefore, Mahatma Gandhi described salt as the most oppressive aspect of British rule.

Under this movement, Gandhiji along with his few companions traveled on foot from Sabaram Ashram to the coastal town of Dandi, 240 km away. gave birth to a feeling of national protest. The Dandi March was an unprecedented event that shook the British Empire. It was through the Dandi March that Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Long answer Type questions

1. Write a short note on Poona Pact.

Ans- (a) Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders severely criticized the Communal Award. Gandhiji started the fast unto death on September 20, 1932, in Pune’s Yervagha Jail.

(b) Finally, with the acceptance of Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar, there was an agreement known as the “Poona Pact”. The British Government also accepted it.

(c) Bhimrao Ambedkar and MC Raja were the representatives of the Harijans in this settlement. According to the terms of the Poona Pact, the separate electorates for the untouchables (depressed classes) were abolished.

(d) Seats will be reserved for untouchables but they will be elected on the basis of a joint system. A condition was also laid in the Poona Pact for providing financial assistance for the education of the Harijans.

(b) The number of seats reserved for them in the Provincial Legislatures was increased from 71 to 148 and 18 seats were reserved for them in the Central Legislature.

(a) Harijans were given due representation in local bodies and public services as per the terms of the Poona Pact.

2. Why did different classes and groups participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?

Various classes and groups took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Because the meaning of Swaraj was different for everyone-

(a) Most of the businessmen saw Swaraj as an era where there would be no colonial restrictions on trade and trade and industry would be able to flourish freely.

(b) For the rich peasants, Swaraj meant the fight against high rents.

(c) Swaraj for women meant the attainment of a standard and equal life with men in Indian society.

(d) Swaraj for the poor peasants meant that they would have their own land, they would not have to pay land rent, and would not have to do forced labor.

3 When was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact? Mention any one of its conditions.

Answer – On March 1931, there was an agreement between the then Viceroy Lord Irwin and Mahatma Gandhi, which is famous as Gandhi Irwin Pact.

(a) According to this settlement, the government released all the prisoners related to the Civil Disobedience Movement.

(b) Mahatma Gandhi suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement and also accepted to participate in the Second Round Table Conference.

4. Write a short note on Khilafat Movement.

Answer – Khilafat movement –

(a) Ottoman Turkey had been defeated in the First World War. Rumors were spread that a very strict peace treaty would be imposed on the Ottoman Emperor, the spiritual leader (Caliph) of the Islamic world.

(b) To protect the self-respect of the Khalifa, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.

(c) Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali brothers as well as several young Muslim leaders held talks with Mahatma Gandhi to explore the possibility of joint mass action on this issue.

(d) In September 1920, other leaders including Mahatma Gandhi agreed that a non-cooperation movement should be launched in support of the Khilafat Movement and for Swarajya.

5. Why did Gandhiji suddenly stop the non-cooperation movement when it was in full swing?

Answer – In the Nagpur session of December 1920, Congress declared its goal to achieve independence. Along with this, he also accepted to run the non-cooperation movement. Annie Besant, Jinnah, and Vipin Chandra Pal were not in favor of this movement, so they resigned from Congress.

The programs of the non-cooperation movement were the use of indigenous goods, renunciation of titles, renunciation of nominated posts from local bodies, renunciation of government schools, a boycott of government courts, non-participation in elections to legislatures, and renunciation of jobs in the army, coal, etc.

Due to the efforts of Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders, this movement soon took a violent form. Gandhiji and other important leaders were put in jail. This movement went on actively for two years, when a mob set a police post on fire at a place called Chauri-Chaura in Uttar Pradesh on 5 February. Mahatma Gandhi was saddened by this violent incident of Chauri-Chaura and ended this movement.

Discuss the Salt March and explain that it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Ans- (a) On March 12, 1930, Gandhiji initiated the Civil Disobedience Movement by Dandi March. Gandhiji’s followers broke the salt law by making salt at a seaside place called Dandi. This movement was a symbol of disobedience to government orders.

(b) Breaking British law was undoubtedly a tremendous step against colonialism. To see, this process of making salt from seawater seems to be a simple incident but it shook the entire structure of colonialism.

(c) Mahatma Gandhi and his companions had to stop at many places on the journey of about 240 miles from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi. Slogans were raised against the British government at every stage, which further incited national sentiments and created hatred toward colonialism among the people.

(d) As soon as salt was made from seawater on April 6, 1930, everyone came to know that the bugle of the civil disobedience movement against the British Government had been sounded.

Thus the Salt March became an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

7 What was the significance of the Lahore Congress session?

Ans- The following was the importance of the Lahore Congress session- (a) The President of the Lahore session of the Congress in 1929 was Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. It became clear that leaders with faith in democracy and socialism had now become influential in Congress. New

(b) In its session, Congress passed the resolution demanding full independence. In a special resolution, it was said that the British Government had ruined India economically, politically, culturally, and spiritually. We believe that India must have Purna Swarajya or complete independence.

(c) It was decided to start the civil disobedience movement for the attainment of independence. One of the resolutions clearly stated “We are quite sure that this evil regime can be put to an end even if we withdraw the voluntary aid and follow the path of non-violence. Stop paying all taxes.

(d) It was also decided that every year January 26 should be celebrated as Independence Day all over India. Thus January 26, 1930 AD was celebrated as Independence Day. Due to its celebration, great enthusiasm was created in the general public and the message of complete independence reached every house. Imagine that you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

8. Tell me what would have been the meaning of this experience in your life?

Ans- To participate in the civil disobedience movement, I am not a woman. Would have been so proud. I would not only have had the privilege of meeting great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi but would have enjoyed walking with him from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi. In these 25-26 days (March 12, 1930, to April 5, 1930) we were welcomed at every place, and thousands of people came to listen to Mahatma Gandhi shouting slogans against the government.

The whole atmosphere became such that I was forced to think that the day is not far when India will be independent. As soon as Mahatma Gandhi started preparing salt from the salty surface of the sea at Dandi place on 6th April 1st, the sky echoed with slogans like Bharat Mata Zindabad Zindabad, ‘We will take freedom’ etc.

9. Why are political leaders divided on the question of separate electorates (constituencies)

Ans- (a) The political leaders represented different sections and communities of Indian society.

(b) Like- Dr. Ambedkar used to lead the oppressed classes or Dalits. This 

Thus Muhammad Ali Jinnah represented the Muslim social group of India. (c) These leaders wanted to raise the standard of living of their followers by demanding special political rights and separate electorates.

(d) But the Congress party, especially Gandhi, believed that separate electorates would adversely affect the unity of India.

(d) He was against this demand and once upon a time sat on fast unto death for this. These were the reasons why the political leaders were sitting on the question of separate constituencies.

10 Mention the factors that develop a sense of collective belonging among Indians.

When people start feeling that they are part of one nation; When they find something in common that binds each other in a thread of unity. But how does the nation become a reality in the mind of the people? How did different groups belonging to different communities, regions or languages ​​develop a sense of collective belonging?

This sense of collective belonging was partly born out of joint struggles. Apart from these, there were many cultural processes through which nationalism captured the imagination and minds of the people. History and literature, folk tales and songs, images, and symbols, all contributed to the realization of nationalism.

11 Mention the various methods adopted by the Indians in the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Various methods adopted by the Indians in the non-cooperation movement- (a) Gandhiji wanted to start the non-cooperation movement in a planned manner

Were. His idea was to first return the titles given by the government and then boycott government jobs and foreign goods.

(b) The beginning of non-cooperation movement started with the participation of the urban middle class. Students left schools and colleges. Teachers resigned, lawyers stopped fighting cases and council elections were boycotted in almost all provinces except Madras.

(c) Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops were picketed and foreign clothes were burnt.

(d) The merchants refused to invest money in foreign trade. The prevalence and production of Khadi increased in the country.

(e) In order to deprive landlords of barber-washer facilities in rural areas, panchayats decided to bandh barber-washers. Large structural projects form the backbone of the economy. Big road projects, power stations or rail networks, etc. are similar projects.

Class 10 History Solution


Q. What is the significance of Dandi March?

Answer – The Civil Disobedience Movement was started by the Dandi March (1930 AD).

Q. When and who started the Khilafat movement?

Answer – The Khilafat Movement was started in 1919 AD by two Ali brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

Q. Write two main features of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

Answer – Along with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji participated in the Second Round Table Conference. The main features of this agreement were-
(a) The government agreed to release all the prisoners against whom there was no case of violence.
(b) Gandhiji was sent as a representative.

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