Are you a student of class 10th and you are looking for important question answers in NCERT Class 10 History Ch-6 Question Answers?
this chapter is very important for the exam. Many questions from this chapter have come in the exam. Because of this, it is very important to know the question and answers to this chapter.
So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.
Ncert Class 10 History Ch-6 Question Answers Work, Life, And Leisure PDF
|Work, Life, And Leisure
metropolis A populous city that is often its capital as well.
Urbanization: The process of developing into a town or city.
Philanthropist: A person who works for the welfare of others and social upliftment and gives his money and time for this.
Tenements: makeshift and often overcrowded apartment buildings. Such houses were found in abundance in the poor areas of big cities.
Temperance Movement: A social reform movement primarily led by the middle class that began in the nineteenth century in America and England. Under this movement, alcohol was held responsible for the destruction of society and family. In this movement, emphasis was laid on reducing the consumption of intoxicating drinks, especially among the working class.
Asphyxiation: The process of suffocation due to the reduction of oxygen
Individualism: The doctrine that advocates freedom, rights, and free action of the individual, not just of the community.
Presidency Cities: Bombay, Madras, and the capitals of the Bengal Presidency during British rule.
Depressed Classes A term used for people who are considered ‘untouchable’ and ‘low caste’ in the caste system.
Land Development: Making marshy or submerged land fit for farming or living or any other work.
Short and long answer Type questions
Write in brief-
1. Why did the population of London start expanding from the middle of the eighteenth century? Give the reason.
Answer: There were mainly two reasons for the expansion of the population of London in the eighteenth century- (i) People from the surrounding areas went to London on a large scale. In the words of Gareth Stedman, “19th-century London was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, small professionals and skilled artisans, a growing population of skilled and manual laborers, soldiers, servants, day laborers, hawkers and beggars.”
(ii) People were employed on a large scale in the docks of London and the five major industries there. Apart from this, the production of motor cars and electrical equipment started in London during the First World War, there was a further increase in the demand for laborers.
2. How did the work available to women in London change between the 19th and 20th centuries? What were the reasons for these changes?
Answer: The changes in the work available to women in London in the 19th and 20th centuries were due to the following reasons – (i) During this time women used to work in factories to a large extent. But due to the improvement in technology, women working in factories had to lose their jobs and they were limited to domestic work.
(ii) Women started hiring people in houses to increase their family’s income. Apart from this, she started doing work like sewing-weaving and making matches at home.
(iii) In the 20th century, women again started getting work in industries and offices for wartime work. The main reason for this was the high demand for men in the war zone. The establishment of new industrial units, reduction in foreign imports, expansion of ancient industries, and motivation to contribute more to the war were the reasons for this change.
3. Having a large urban population affects which of the following? Explain with historical examples.
(a) Zamindar The huge urban population started creating challenges before the landowners. Among them, the problem of slums was the main one. While eating and drinking in the cities, there was a demand of the residents that the slums should be cleaned, but slowly people started understanding the fact that there should be housing arrangements for the poor of the city as well.
Because the houses in the slums were overcrowded, there were no facilities for cleanliness. Due to this health problems could arise. Secondly, there was a danger of fire in the dilapidated houses, thirdly, there was a possibility of general upheaval in this huge crowd. To overcome all these problems, various housing schemes were started for the laborers. It was for these reasons that private landowners in London, Berlin, and New York had to pay considerable attention to housing and its related problems.
The problems of pollution also came before the private landowners and the talk of arranging ‘new lungs’ for the cities started to arise. In this context, an attempt was made to bridge the gap between the countryside and the cities by creating a green belt around London.
(B) Superintendent of Police handling law and order With the increase in population in the cities, problems arose in front of a Superintendent of Police to maintain law and order in the cities because along with the increase in the population in the cities, the number of criminals also increased. Had happened. For example, in the 1870s there were at least 20,000 convicts living in London alone.
(c) Leader of a political party The leader of a political party is greatly influenced by the large population in the cities. ,
(i) Political parties try to increase the number of supporters of themselves and their parties in the cities.
(ii) When in 1886 it was impossible to work in the houses due to extreme cold, a situation of riots broke out in London. The demand of the people was that they should be freed from poverty.
(iii) In 1887, police used more force to quell a similar riot. This action is known in history as Bloody Sunday. In such circumstances, political parties often bake their political loaves of bread.
(iv) After about two years the dock workers of London went on strike for union recognition of the dock workers. Such incidents hurt capitalism and encourage leftist parties and leaders.
3. explain the following
(a) Why did wealthy Londoners in the nineteenth-century support the need to build houses for the poor?
Answer: This was due to the following reasons. Because the children in the slums were becoming criminals, so it was considered necessary to arrange accommodation for them inspired by humanitarian sentiments.
(ii) The poor were insecure among them, so providing them with safe housing was necessary to provide their continuous services to society and the factories of the rich class.
(iii) The filth spread in the slum could create serious health problems for the poor as well as the rich living nearby.
(iv) Dilapidated houses were more prone to fire.
(b) Why were so many Bombay films based on the lives of outsiders in the city?
Answer: Most of the films from Mumbai were based on the lives of people coming from outside the city. Because these films wanted to discourage people from running away to Mumbai. In these films, the life of Mumbai is shown in the dirty environment, lack of residential houses, lack of drinking water, the centrist attitude of the people there, and the sense of neglect towards human values.
Songs like ‘Ae Dil Hai Mushkil Jeena Yahaan, Zara Hatke, Zara Bachke, Ye Hai Bombay Meri Jaan’ and ‘Jiska Joota, Usi Ke Sar’, ‘Dil Hai Chhota Bada Shahar, Arey Wah Re Wah Teri Bombay’, etc. express.
(c) Why there was a huge increase in the population of Bombay in the middle of the nineteenth century?
Answer: Bombay’s trade became a major center of commerce –
(i) In the 17th century, Bombay was a group of seven islands that came under the jurisdiction of the Portuguese. But in 1661, it went under the authority of the British and the East India Company established its headquarters in Bombay from Surat, the major port here. Bombay was declared a Presidency city in 1819 and gradually it became an important administrative center of western India. By the turn of the century, it had emerged as a major industrial center.
(ii) After the defeat of the Marathas in the war of 1819, the city started expanding rapidly after it was declared a Presidency. Apart from this, with the opening of textile mills, a large number of people started coming and settling in Bombay.
(iii) Due to the establishment of new industries, there was a huge increase in the population here. Between 1881 and 1931, only a quarter of the population living in Bombay were locals.
(iv) The city of Bombay is the junction or meeting point of two major railway networks. Due to the railway, the people coming to the city started getting more facilities and this city started spreading more. Due to all the above reasons, Bombay emerged as an important center of trade and commerce.
1. What means of entertainment came up in England in the nineteenth century to provide opportunities for entertainment to the people?
Answer: The following means of entertainment were available in England in the nineteenth century –
(i) In the last decades of the eighteenth century, many types of cultural events like opera, theater and classical music, etc. were organized for the groups of elite families.
(ii) The toiling classes used to spend their free time in pav or liquor houses during this period.
(iii) Gradually, new ways of recreation for the common people began to emerge, in which libraries, art galleries, and museums were to be opened.
(iv) With the abolition of entry fees to museums in Britain in 1810, there was a rapid increase in the number of visitors to museums.
(v) Beach walks were an important means of entertainment for British industrial workers during their holidays.
5. Explain the social changes in London that led to the need for the underground railway. Why was the construction of the underground railway criticized?
Answer: Social change and an underground railway in London
(i) The urban population increased.
(ii) Due to the increase in factories, various types of pollution, health, cleanliness, law and order, the decline in morality, child labor, the arrival of a large number of immigrants, etc. problems came to the fore, as a result of which there was a lot of change in the society.
the need to build an underground railway
(i) The underground railway was built to prepare Londoners to move from the city to the suburbs.
(ii) One of the objectives of the underground railway was also to stop the wastage of more time spent in movement.
Criticism It has been criticized on the following grounds-
(i) Many people did not consider underground train travel to be suitable for health. They said that the bins were small and stuffy, with the smoke from the smokers adding to the suffocation.
(ii) Many people felt that these ‘Iron Giants’ had added to the unhygienic and unhealthy atmosphere in the city. Secondly, a large amount of sabotage activities were done due to their construction, which is a waste of resources. According to an estimate, on average, 900 houses were demolished to lay a railway line about two miles long. Because of this the poor were uprooted in large numbers.
6, What is meant by the Haussmannization of Paris? To what extent do you consider this development to be right or wrong? Write a letter to the editor of the newspaper supporting or opposing this and give reasons in favor of your point of view.
Answer: Hausmannization of Paris means Hausmannization of Paris means to develop Paris as a modern city. In 1852, Louis Napoleon III declared himself emperor. After this, he started the work of rebuilding Paris. The emperor entrusted this work of construction to an architect named Baron Haussmann, who was the Prefect of Sian. His name has become synonymous with the forced reconstruction of cities in the name of beauty and order.
He cleared the slums from the center of Paris to beautify the city and to remove the possibility of any rebellion. (Hint – Try writing a letter to the editor of the student newspaper on your own. They can include the following facts in their letter. I support this modernization activity on the following grounds.
- (1) It has given a new look to the city.
- (2) It has increased the standard of living of the people.
- (3) It has increased the sense of being civilized.
- (4) Modernization of the city has encouraged every social, intellectual, and cultural development here.
- (5) As a result of strong infrastructure, trade, and commercial activities have been encouraged.
- (6) Now the slum dwellers of the city have got better housing facilities in the city.
- (7) The problem of pollution has been reduced.
- (8) Tourism-related activities have increased.
- (9) The beauty of the city has increased.
- (10) The prestige of the city has increased at the international level.
7, To what extent have government regulations and new laws solved the problem of pollution? Give one example of each of the successes and failures of laws made to change the level of:
(a) Public life
(b) private life
Answer: The government forced new laws and acts on the people to solve the problem of pollution. but still
These rules and regulations have not been completely successful in solving this problem. Below are some examples of their success and failure.
1. examples of success
(a) Public Life The Governor of Bombay, William Hornby – approved a proposal to build a huge wall on the seashore to protect the low-lying areas of the city from being hit by seawater and polluting the land. saved from
(b) Private life The Singapore government got rid of the problem of pollution by controlling the private life of the people. Every inch was accounted for by the government while planning the city. High-rise residential blocks were provided with ventilation and all kinds of services to keep the city pollution free.
2, examples of failure
(a) Public life By the 1840s, laws were passed to control smoke in cities such as Derby, Leeds, and Manchester, but factory owners made only minor modifications to their machinery that made no significant difference to the amount of smoke. Thus the smoke control laws of 1847 to 1855 had failed in their purpose.
(b) Private Life – The new laws and acts have not succeeded in protecting the private life of the people. The development of the underground railway in Britain greatly affected people on a personal level because of the smoke inside the coaches and the massive destruction of property at the time of its construction.
Class 10 History Solution
What is the reason for the rise of nationalism?
Indian nationalism emerged to some extent as a result of colonial policies and the Indian response to those policies. The expansion of western education, the rise of the middle class, the expansion of railways, and socio-religious movements played an important role in the development of nationalism.
What are the causes and effects of the rise of nationalism?
Nationalism in Europe arose as a result of cultural, ethnic, as well as political policies, which led to the formation of nation-states and new national identities in place of former multi-ethnic empires. It began with the Age of Enlightenment in the middle of the 18th century.