Are you a student of class 10th and you are looking for important question answers in NCERT Class 10 History Ch-5 Question Answers?
this chapter is very important for the exam. Many questions from this chapter have come in the exam. Because of this, it is very important to know the question and answers to this chapter.
So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.
Ncert Class 10 History Ch-5 Question Answers The Age Of Industrialization PDF
|The Age Of Industrialization
Oriental: Countries located to the east of the Mediterranean Sea. Usually, this term is used for Asia. From the Western point of view, the Oriental areas were pre-modern, traditional, and mysterious.
Adi: An indication of the initial or first state of something. Stapler: A person who ‘staples’ or sorts wool according to the fibers. Fuller: A person who ‘fulls’ means gathers clothes with the help of pleats. Carding: The process in which fibers like wool or cotton are prepared for spinning.
Spinning Jenny: Invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves, this machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced the demand for labor. A worker turning a single wheel could turn many spindles and many threads could be made at the same time.
Fly Shuttle: It is a mechanical device operated by means of pulleys and ropes which is used for weaving. It weaves the horizontal thread (Tana – the weft) into the vertical thread (Bana – the wrap). The invention of the fly shuttle helped the weavers to operate larger looms and to make cloth of wider width.
Very short answer Type questions
1 What is a Spinning Jenny?
Answer – This machine, made by James Herpes in 1764, hastened the process of spinning and reduced the demand for laborers. A worker turning a single wheel would turn many spindles and many threads would be formed at the same time.
2 What is Fly Shuttle?
Ans- It is a mechanical device driven by ropes and pulleys which is used for weaving. It weaves the horizontal thread (Tana – the weft) into the vertical thread (Bana – the warp). The invention of the fly shuttle helped the weavers to operate larger looms and to make cloth of wider width.
3. What is meant by industrialization (pre-industrialization)?
Answer – Even before the establishment of big factories in Europe, large-scale industrial production had started for international markets. This production was not done in factories, but by rural artisans in villages. These were controlled by the merchants. This is known as pre-industrialization or early industrialization.
4 When, where, and by whom was the first cotton textile mill established in India?
Answer – In 1853, the first cotton textile mill in India was established by Kawasji Nana in Mumbai. was done.
5 How many jute and cotton mills were there in India during the British period?
In the post-British period, there were 40 jute mills in 1901 and 206 cotton textile mills in 1905 India.
6 What types of industries were the European managing agencies interested in?
Answer – In tea and coffee plantation.
7 Why was the condition of Indian workers, artists, farmers, and laborers bad?
Answer- The English East India Company was resorting to bribery to maintain its credibility and monopoly.
8 Which Indian industries and handicrafts dominated the world market before the machine age?
Answer – Before the machine age, India’s cotton and silk cloth dominated the world market.
9 Who was Jamshedji Jeejeebhoye?
Answer- Jamshedji Jeejeebhoye was the son of a Parsi weaver. Like many people of his time, he also did trade and shipping with China. He had a huge fleet of ships. Competition with British and American shipping companies forced them to sell all ships by the 1850s.
10 Which two ports of India had relations with South-East Asian countries?
Answer – Maslipatam is located on the Coromandel Coast and Hooghly in Bengal.
Short answer Type questions
1. Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny machines. Explain.
Or, why were so many workers opposed to the use of the spinning jenny? Or, What Was the Spinning Jenny? Who invented it?
Ans- (a) The Spinning Jenny was invented by James Husgreebs in 1764 AD. This machine speeded up the process of spinning, due to which now the demand for laborers decreased.
(b) By turning a single wheel, a worker would spin all the spindles and many threads would be formed at the same time.
(c) Due to the fear of unemployment, the women artisans, who used to earn their living by spinning thread by hand, panicked.
(d) Therefore, they opposed the installation of these new machines and wherever these machines were installed, they attacked and destroyed them. Women’s protests and vandalism continued for a long time.
2In the 17th century, merchants from European cities began to employ peasants and artisans in villages. Explain.
Answer – In the seventeenth century, the merchants of the European cities started getting the farmers and artisans to work in the villages. He did this for the following reasons-
(a) Due to the expansion of world trade and the establishment of colonies, the demand for things started increasing, so industrialists and traders wanted to increase their production but could not do so by staying in the cities because there labor unions and trade guilds were very powerful. Which could create many problems for them.
(b) The poor cultivators and artisans in the villages started working for the merchants. At this time, small farmers and poor farmers were looking for new sources of income to run the work. Many farmers had small farms in the villages. But they could not feed all the family members.
(c) When European merchants from the cities came to the villages and gave them advance money to produce goods, the farmers and artisans immediately set to work. These people used to work as merchants while staying in the village and taking care of their farms.
(d) This arrangement developed a close relationship between the towns and the villages. The merchants lived in the cities but the work for them was mostly done in the countryside. Things were produced in homes rather than in factories and the merchants had complete control over it.
3.The Surat port had reached marginalization by the end of the eighteenth century. Explain.
(a) Surat was an important port during the colonial period. From where the trade with West Asia was very prosperous. In rapidly changing conditions, Calcutta and Bombay emerged as new industrial centers while developed centers like Surat were marginalized.
(b) Due to this, both the old ports of Surat and Hooghly became weak. There was a dramatic reduction in exports from here. The trade through the new ports was under the control of the European companies.
(c) By the end of the eighteenth century, the power of the European companies was increasing. First they obtained various concessions from the local courts and then they obtained monopoly rights over trade.
(d) The increasing importance of new ports (Bombay and Calcutta) in place of many old ports was a sign of the growing power of the colonial power.
4.The East India Company employed gomas to supervise the weavers in India. Explain.
The North-East India Company, with a view to eliminating the role of Indian traders and brokers and exerting greater control over the weavers, employed paid employees known as gumashtas. Various types of work were assigned to these gomashts.
(a) They used to give loans to the weavers so that they could not produce and sell their goods to any other merchant.
(b) They used to collect the finished goods from the weavers.
(c) They used to check the quality of the manufactured goods, especially the clothes made.
5 State the meaning of pre-industrialization.
By post-industrialization we mean those industries which were flourishing before the setting up of factories. Even when factories had not started in England and Europe, there were still a lot of goods made to meet international demand. This production was not done in factories, but goods were prepared by hand in every house, and that too in large quantities.
Many historians refer to the industrial activities before the establishment of factories as pre-industrialization. Cities had many trade guilds that produced a variety of things before factories were established. In rural areas, many merchants used to get the farmers and laborers to do the same work manually. This pre-industrial system remained an important part of business activities in England and Europe before factories were built.
6. What did the East India Company do to ensure a regular supply of cotton and silk cloth from Indian weavers?
The North-East India Company did several important things to ensure a regular supply of cotton and silk from Indian weavers –
(a) The role of many Indian merchants and bankers in the export trade was commendable.
(b) The Company appointed paid employees called Gumashtas to get the goods prepared by the weavers, to provide the goods to the weavers, and to check the quality of the cloth.
(c) The company started providing loans to the weavers to buy raw materials.
(d) Prohibited the weavers who sold goods to the Company from trading with other buyers. For this, he was given an advance amount.
(e) With the increase in the demand for fine cloth, more loans were given to the weavers, in the hope of earning more, and the weavers used to accept the advance.
(f) In view of the great demand for Indian cloth in Europe, it was considered necessary to control the weavers and merchants of the supply. The company implemented a new system of management and control to eliminate competition, curb costs, and ensure a regular supply of cotton and silk goods.
7. For what reasons did the means of employment increase after the 1840s?
Answer – (a) In widening the roads.
(b) in the construction of new railway stations.
(c) in the development of railway lines.
(d) in the excavation of caves
8. How was the import of cloth made in Manchester affecting India?
Ans- (a) This import caused a great loss to the Indian textile industry as now there were very few consumers of Indian cloth and Manchester cloth was cheap and shiny.
(b) Many weavers became unemployed due to this and had to go to nearby towns and work as laborers.
9. Explain the meaning of the industrial revolution.
Ans- Industrial revolution is the revolution that brought many revolutionary changes in the technology and organization of production in the second half of the eighteenth century. This revolution gave birth to the factory system in place of domestic industries, work was done by machines instead of hands and the capitalist class took the place of small artisans.
10.Why were there quarrels between the weavers and the gomasthas of the village?
Answer: Soon there were reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas in many weavers’ villages. Earlier supply merchants often lived in the weavers’ villages and had close relations with the weavers, taking care of their needs and helping them in times of distress. The new gomasthas were people from outside. They did not have old social relations with the villages. They used to behave arrogantly, used to bring soldiers and peons and used to punish the weavers if the goods were not ready in time. Weavers were often beaten and flogged as punishment, now not weavers.
So could not negotiate on the price nor could sell the goods to anyone else. The price they got from the company was very less but they were tied to the company due to debts.
Long answer Type questions
1. Advertising helps in generating new consumers. How? Tell the reason.
Answer- One way of generating new customers is through advertisements. When new things are created, people have to be motivated to buy them. People should feel that they need that product. As we know, advertisements make various products necessary and desirable. They change the thinking of people and create new needs. Today we live in a world where advertisements are everywhere.
Advertisements are everywhere in newspapers, magazines, hoardings, walls, and television screens. But if we look back at history, we find that since the beginning of industrialization, advertisements have played a role in spreading the market for various products and creating a new consumer culture.
When Manchester industrialists started selling cloth in India, they used to label bundles of cloth. The advantage of the label was that the buyers knew the name of the company and the place of production.
The label itself was also a symbol of the quality of the goods. When a label saw the words ‘Made in Manchester in bold letters, buyers had no fear of buying a garment.
Thus it is clear that advertising helps a lot in generating new consumers.
2. Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer manual workers to machines?
Some industrialists in post-19th century Europe preferred manual workers over machines. Many reasons were presented behind their doing so-
(a) There was no shortage of human labor in Victorian Britain, so some industrialists preferred manual workers over machines.
(b) Some industrialists hesitated to spend heavily on large machines because it was not necessary that they would be profitable by doing so.
(c) There are many such industries where the number of laborers keeps on fluctuating, such as the number of laborers keeps fluctuating in the repair and cleaning work of ships, taverns, and ports. In such industries, the industrialists preferred to hire laborers instead of machines.
(d) Even if a small number of things had to be prepared, it was considered better to get the work done by laborers instead of machines.
(e) People used to demand special designs in some items, which were very expensive and difficult to make by machines. That’s why laborers were considered better than machines even in such works, where human dexterity was needed, not mechanical technology.
(d) Some of the upper-class people of the Victorian era, such as the elite and the capitalist class, preferred handmade things. Hand-made things were considered a sign of hospitality and high society. Since they were made one by one, handmade wares had exquisite designs and good finishing.
3. Why did India’s industrial production increase during the First World War?
Answer – Many reasons are given for why India’s industrial production increased during the First World War, the main ones are as follows-
(a) Britain got entangled in the First World War in such a way that its attention was diverted to its children. He could no longer export his goods to India, due to which Indian industries got an opportunity to flourish.
(b) Instead of making various items of export, all the factories of England started making military material, so Indian industries got a huge domestic market overnight.
(c) In addition to getting a huge domestic market, Indian industries got a new life when the government also got orders for many things like making uniforms for the army, making boots, making tents, etc., many types of goods for horses etc. She came. As the war progressed, Indian industry also progressed.
(d) Along with the old factories, many new factories were opened, and not only industrialists but laborers and artisans also got silver, their wages increased, due to which their body was overturned.
(e) Seeing the British government trapped in the First World War, Indian leaders started giving more emphasis on Swadeshi, then it became the icing on the cake for Indian industries. Thus, directly and indirectly, the First World War proved to be a boon for Indian industries.
Class 10 History Solution
Why was the practice of giving loans to weavers adopted by the English Company?
Ans- (a) Loans were given to the weavers so that they could buy cotton easily from the market.
(b) Loanee weavers could not sell their finished goods to anyone else, this was a great thing for the English Company.
2. How did urban handicrafts die out suddenly in the 19th century?
Answer – The Britishers brought many machine-made goods to India. British goods were of good quality, as well as being attractive and cheap. Indian handicraft could not stand before him. For this reason, the Indian handicraft industry started on a path of decline.
3. Name the businessmen of the 19th century who dominated Indian industry and trade.
(b) Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamshedji Nasrwanji Tata.
(c) Marwari Seth Hukumchand,
(d) G. D. Birla’s father and grandfather etc.